HGHI 1

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Author:
camandstu
ID:
203912
Filename:
HGHI 1
Updated:
2013-02-27 19:27:01
Tags:
genetics
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Description:
human genetics and health issues course notes
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  1. What is the outer layer of a human cell called?
    the cell membrane
  2. What is the joint term for a chromosome and the copy made during cell growth?
    chromatids
  3. What is the name for the point where chromatids are attached to each other?
    centromere
  4. What is the name of the process when the cell nucleus divides in Two?
    meiTosis
  5. What is the outcome of cell division by mitosis?
    Two cells with an identical copy of genetic material.
  6. What is the term for complete set of chromosomes in an individual ? ( or species )
    karyotype
  7. Are pairs of homologous chromosomes the same as each other, or different?
    same
  8. What is the combination of sex chromosomes for males and females?
    XY and XX
  9. Which is larger - X or Y chromosome?
    X is larger.
  10. What is an autosome?
    Non-sex chromosome.
  11. What is the term for full set of genes of a given individual?
    Genotype
  12. What is the term for the full set of characteristics of an individual?
    phenotype

    phainein = 'to show'
  13. What is the term for different forms of the same gene?
    allele
  14. What is the collective term for sperm and egg cells?
    Gametes
  15. What is the collective term for gametes (sperm / egg ) and ovarian/testicular cells which pass on genetic information?
    Germ-line cells?
  16. Which cells do not pass on genetic information?
    Somatic cells
  17. What is the term for nuclear division in germline cells?
    meiosis
  18. What is the term used when a cell has only one set of chromosomes? i.e. set of 23
    haploid
  19. What is the term used when a cell has both sets of chromosomes? i.e. 46 chromosomes
    diploid
  20. What is independent assortment / random assortment?
    When each new gamete gets one of each of 23 chromosomes, but all these could be either from the m/f pair from the original parent.

    • So c1m, c2m, c3f, c4m, c5f .....
    • versus c1m, c2f, c3m, c4f, c5f .... or many other combinations
  21. With regard to recombination of chromosomes, what is crossing over?
    Parts of each chromosome swap over with a piece of the paired chromosome, so mixing part of the inherited m with inherited f to give new combination before separation. So gamete chromosomes are not exact copy of parent chromosomes.

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