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What is Sociology?
The Systematic & scientific study of human behavior, groups, society,and the general social pattern/trends which are found in society.
what's the target of studying Sociology?
Everything from social interaction, experiences, social acts, relationships, social organizations, structures or institutions and even world systems.
What sociologist agree about?
- > Social life is not haphazard ( there are pattern/predictability to social life)
- >their job is to learn those patterns and why.
- >study of patterns allows an individual's problem might be shaped by factors such as the economy, the educational system, religious attitude, etc.
What was Durkheim's task?
- >1890: Emile Durkheim wanted to demonstrate why sociology was an important field & discipline
- Previously suicide was attributed to:
- > individual's psychological problems or genetic or inheritance.
- >seen as totally dependent on the individual.
What was Durkheim's method?
- examine all government statistics on suicide, analyzing:
- >Who killed themselves?
- >where, Why, what age?
- >Under what situations?
- [Found incident of suicide followed very clear patterns]
Durkheim's theory of Anomie/ Integration
- >Extreme Individualisim->Lower social integration & social ties -> lower morale
- >Low morale->higher likelihood of committing suicide.
Durkheim's take on Modernity
- > Specialization under capitalism produces a socio-economic division of labor.
- >The division of labor creates a myriad of dependencies.
- >dependencies force everyone to follow certain rules and norms to get their needs met.
- > Interdependencies are the new glue of society
Weber's take on Modernity
Economics shape society, but so do cultural ideas & values; bureaucratization[ ex. DMV] & rationalization are driving force of modern society;science [ex. moder goes to hospital for birth for giving birth] and technology gain increasing control over people's live.
* We Lost The Control because of the rules.
Theory Vs. Theoretical perspective
Theory: a set of interrelated propositions and statements that attempt to explain some phenomenon.
Theoretical perspective: a whole way of looking at the world: it determines your assumption & interpretation of information, etc
The Functionalist perspective
- >society is held together by shared norms& values;
- >Society is joint effort of many institutions & roles working together for the common Goals
- >the primary cause of social problem is social disorganization, which generally result from rapid social change or from deviant individuals. [ex. gay marriage can't win because christian churches think it's going to ruin America]
manifest Vs. latent effects
manifest effects: the intended & obvious consequence of a social component.
Latent Effects: the unrecognized, unintended, usually overlooked consequences of a component.
- > society is held together by power, authority, and coercion.
- >Society is struggle for dominance & resources among competing social groups.
- >The primary cause of social problem is the exploitation & oppression of some groups by others;[example. George bush were member of several oil company therefore, he privatized the oil companies]
- >False consequences used by ruling elites to maintain power and control over resources.
- >Social movements & struggle against oppression are necessary to effect social change.
- According to Marx, false consequences occurs when subordinate, less educated groups adopt the ideology or world view of ruling or dominant group, usually through the ruling class's control of ideas and media.
- Ex. when less educate people in the american society listen to fox news and fox news tell them what ever they want and they don't understand the differences.
symbolic internationalist perspective
- > Individual behavior is based on the symbols & shared meanings, we learn
- > learning occurs during interactions between individuals & other people and groups.
- > primary cause of social problems is the way we define ourselves, others and our social situations.
- > Solutions: better understanding of each other and change in language used.
- Example: What do " hoodies" symbolize for Geraldo?
- Fox news: means gangsters meaning violent/criminals
- Cops/ security guys/principles: more cautiousness
Types Of Sociology:
- Micro sociology: the details of what people say, do, and think during their everyday lives.
- Macro sociology: Large scale and long term social processes of organizations, institutions, and broad social patterns[ex the state, social class, the family, , economy, culture, & society,etc]
- a method to test hypothesis under carefully controlled conditions.
- * the only way to scientifically "prove" a cause & effect relationship between two variables by ruling out other plausible explanations.
- questionnaire studies in which demographic info such as respondents age, sex, religion & income is taken & people are asked their opinion on various questions. then computer analyzed.
Studying people who are unaware that they're being studied without interacting with the group.
becoming a member of a social group to understand how they view the world& act as they do ( involves interaction & interviews)