a.Active; requires energy; muscle contractions in the intercostals muscles (between ribs) and diaphragm (Separates thoracic)
i.Must contract to get water in, increasing size of thorax, and therefore, the lungs
1.breathing out (expiration)
a.Passive; normal recoil of muscles
i.They go back and air comes out
Transport of the Respiratory gases occurs by __.
How is oxygen transported?
i.If you look at normal arterial blood, most of the oxygen (osver 98.5% percent) is transported by hemoglobin
ii.1.5% is dissolved oxygen in plasma; majority is in red blood cell being transported by hemoglobin
i.Oxygenated blood= __ 1.Attached to __group, specifically, the __of the __group
i.If every hemoglobin molecule had four oxygen attached to it, your blood will be __
1.Factors that affect this percentage and how much oxygen attaches to hemoglobin
the partial pressure of oxygen
i.Increased amounts of Carbon dioxide
Explain partial pressure of oxygen
i.The greater the PO2, the greater the percent of oxyhemoglobin (with increase in PO2, % saturation increases until you reach one hundred percent)
Increased amounts of Carbon dioxide
1.When CO2 is in circulatory system, it combines with water and forms carbonic acid, which forms the hydrogen ion and the bicarbonate ion
2.High carbon dioxide or low PH (acid) is going to affect the amount of saturation
a.High PCo2 (high acid; low pH) is going to cause less saturation and oxygen to be released from hemoglobin BECAUSE THE TISSUES WANT IT
What does high PCO2 result in?
i.Results in decreased saturation of hemoglobin because the hemoglobin is releasing oxygen
ii.Hemoglobin releases oxygen because of the Bohr effect, which is the hydrogen ions (that came from the carbon dioxide dissociating with water combining with hemoglobin) cause a conformational change in the hemoglobin molecule such that it releases oxygen; hydrogen ions attached to hemoglobin cause conformational change that causes release
iii.Bohr effect is a RESULT of high CO2, low PH, and high acid
Where is High PO2 located?
i.High PO2 is going to be highest in lungs; the more the tissues are creating CO2, the more they want oxygen; so, the Bohr effect causes oxygen to be released
1.Within normal limits, an increase in temperature favors dissociation (oxygen release from hemoglobin)
2.Less saturation at higher temperatures
a.If oxygen is coming off, then it is less saturated
b.Examples of high temperature is when the metabolically active cells are releasing a lot of heatà wants more oxygen; favors dissociation
i.Unlike Oxygen (98.5% carried by hemoglobin), carbon dioxide is carried in three ways
1.10% dissolved blood
2.30% attached to hemoglobin (Carb-amino hemoglobin; attaches to globin portion, not heme; it does not compete with oxygen)
3.60% as bicarbonate ions (will combine with water and form carbonic acid, which dissociates into bicarbonate and hydrogen ion)
What don't want to do?
i.We don’t want to dump a lot of ions in the plasma and have osmotic pressure
1.So, for every bicarbonate that leaves, a chloride ion enters the red blood cell to prevent ionic imbalance