Biomedical Core

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Author:
faulkner116
ID:
203963
Filename:
Biomedical Core
Updated:
2013-02-28 00:37:23
Tags:
Module15
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Description:
Objective 21-26
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  1. Extracellular Fluids:

    Plasma
    -Liquid component of bood

    -Filtered through capillary walls to form interstitial fluid

    -Large proteins don't pass through the capillaries
  2. Extracellular Fluids:

    Interstitial Fluid
    - Clear fluid

    -Less protein than plasma

    -Most is reabsorbed back into the blood

    -20 Liters
  3. Extracellular Fluids:

    Lymphatic Fluid
    - Unaltered interstitial fluid in the lymphatic vessels

    - Absorbed dietary lipids

    - 3 liters
  4. the valves present in the lymphatic vessels
    restrict back-flow of lymph
  5. Flow of Lymphatic Fluid
    1. Plasma in the blood vessels

    2. Interstitial fluid

    3. Lymphatic capillaries

    4. Lymphatic vessels

    5. Lymphatic ducts

    6. Back into the blood stream
  6. Lymphatic fluid is moved by
    - Pressure in the interstitial space

    - The milking action of skeletal muscle contraction

    - Changes in thoracic and abdominal pressures (respiratory movements, abdominal muscle contraction)
  7. The primary lymphatic organs are the locations where stem cells
    divide to produce cells for immune functions

    bone marrow and thymus gland
  8. Immunocompetent means
    they can facilitate an immune response.
  9. Stem cells in the bone marrow divide to produce both
    B lymphocytes and T lymphocytes
  10. B lymphocytes will remain in the bone marrow to
    mature
  11. T lymphocytes will
    leave as pre-T lymphocytes and migrate to the thymus gland to become immunocompetent.
  12. The secondary lymphatic organs and tissues are sites where the majority of
    immune responses take place
  13. Lymph nodes, lymphatic tissue, and the spleen are
    secondary lymphatic organs
  14. Lymph nodes are
    bean-shaped lymphatic organs and are anywhere from 1 to 25 mm in length
  15. There are approximately ___ lymph nodes in the body, and they occur at intervals along the lymphatic vessels.
    600
  16. There are regions in the body where the lymph nodes are group together more prominently:
    cervical, submandibular, axillary, and inguinal
  17. There are two regions of a lymph node, the
    cortex and the medulla.

    *Both regions contain large numbers of white blood cells and macrophages. The types of cells present in each region differ slightly.
  18. The lymph flows through the cortex, where it comes into contact with large populations of _ _______, dendritic cells, and ________. The lymph continues to flow through the node into the medulla.  There it is exposed to more B lymphocytes, _____ _____, and more macrophages.
    B lymphocytes; macrophages; plasma cells (activated B cells)
  19. Innate immunity consists of a number of
    different cellular and chemical barriers which non-specifically protect the body and respond to pathogenic organisms. 

    *In addition to being non-specific, innate immunity is non-adaptive, meaning that the response doesn't change from exposure to exposure.
  20. Components of innate immunity include:
    The skin and mucous membranes, cilia, antimicrobial chemicals, phagocytes, inflammation, and fever.
  21. The main function of adaptive immunity is
    the ability to respond against specific invaders
  22. Adaptive immune response is
    specific, adaptive, and generates memory
  23. Components of adaptive immunity include:
    T lymphocytes, B lymphocytes, plasma cells, and antibodies
  24. The chemical and physical barriers of the first line of defense include
    mucus, mucus-coated hairs, cilia, lacrimation (tears), salivation, flow of urine, vaginal secretions, defecation, vomiting, sebaceous secretions, perspirations, and gastric fluids.

    *Each of these barriers protects the various external openings of the body.
  25. The second line of defense includes a large number of internal defenses. As part of this line, the body
    produces natural antimicrobial substances like interferons, complement, iron-binding proteins to decrease microbial growth, Non-specific phagocytes (wandering and fixed macrophages), and natural killer cells (NK)
  26. Natural killer (NK) cells are actually a type of lymphocyte. They make up
    5-10% of our circulating lymphocytes.

    There role is to release chemicals from their granules to either induce apoptosis or cause lysis of a targeted cell
  27. Phagocytosis:

    Non-specific process-

    includes
    - Chemotaxis

    - Adherence

    - Ingestion

    - Digestion

    - Killing
  28. There are two groups of phagocytes in the second line of defense, what are they?
    Neutrophils and macrophages
  29. Neutrophils are released in large numbers, very quickly, but their lifespan is
    relatively short
  30. Other macrophages called fixed macrophages, may occupy specific tissues. To identify these individual groups, they may have unique names like
    kupffer cells (liver)

    Alveolar macrophages (lung)

    microglial cells (CNS)

    etc.
  31. Fever is an
    abnormally high body temperature due to resetting of the hypothalamic thermostat.
  32. Fever is a non-specific response and
    - Speeds up body reactions

    -Increases the effects of endogenous antimicrobials

    - Sequesters nutrients from microbes

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