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-Liquid component of bood
-Filtered through capillary walls to form interstitial fluid
-Large proteins don't pass through the capillaries
- Clear fluid
-Less protein than plasma
-Most is reabsorbed back into the blood
- Unaltered interstitial fluid in the lymphatic vessels
- Absorbed dietary lipids
- 3 liters
the valves present in the lymphatic vessels
restrict back-flow of lymph
Flow of Lymphatic Fluid
1. Plasma in the blood vessels
2. Interstitial fluid
3. Lymphatic capillaries
4. Lymphatic vessels
5. Lymphatic ducts
6. Back into the blood stream
Lymphatic fluid is moved by
- Pressure in the interstitial space
- The milking action of skeletal muscle contraction
- Changes in thoracic and abdominal pressures (respiratory movements, abdominal muscle contraction)
The primary lymphatic organs are the locations where stem cells
divide to produce cells for immune functions
bone marrow and thymus gland
they can facilitate an immune response.
Stem cells in the bone marrow divide to produce both
B lymphocytes and T lymphocytes
B lymphocytes will remain in the bone marrow to
T lymphocytes will
leave as pre-T lymphocytes and migrate to the thymus gland to become immunocompetent.
The secondary lymphatic organs and tissues are sites where the majority of
immune responses take place
Lymph nodes, lymphatic tissue, and the spleen are
secondary lymphatic organs
Lymph nodes are
bean-shaped lymphatic organs and are anywhere from 1 to 25 mm in length
There are approximately ___ lymph nodes in the body, and they occur at intervals along the lymphatic vessels.
There are regions in the body where the lymph nodes are group together more prominently:
cervical, submandibular, axillary, and inguinal
There are two regions of a lymph node, the
cortex and the medulla.
*Both regions contain large numbers of white blood cells and macrophages. The types of cells present in each region differ slightly.
The lymph flows through the cortex, where it comes into contact with large populations of _ _______, dendritic cells, and ________. The lymph continues to flow through the node into the medulla. There it is exposed to more B lymphocytes, _____ _____, and more macrophages.
B lymphocytes; macrophages; plasma cells (activated B cells)
Innate immunity consists of a number of
different cellular and chemical barriers which non-specifically protect the body and respond to pathogenic organisms.
*In addition to being non-specific, innate immunity is non-adaptive, meaning that the response doesn't change from exposure to exposure.
Components of innate immunity include:
The skin and mucous membranes, cilia, antimicrobial chemicals, phagocytes, inflammation, and fever.
The main function of adaptive immunity is
the ability to respond against specific invaders
Adaptive immune response is
specific, adaptive, and generates memory
Components of adaptive immunity include:
T lymphocytes, B lymphocytes, plasma cells, and antibodies
The chemical and physical barriers of the first line of defense include
mucus, mucus-coated hairs, cilia, lacrimation (tears), salivation, flow of urine, vaginal secretions, defecation, vomiting, sebaceous secretions, perspirations, and gastric fluids.
*Each of these barriers protects the various external openings of the body.
The second line of defense includes a large number of internal defenses. As part of this line, the body
produces natural antimicrobial substances like interferons, complement, iron-binding proteins to decrease microbial growth, Non-specific phagocytes (wandering and fixed macrophages), and natural killer cells (NK)
Natural killer (NK) cells are actually a type of lymphocyte. They make up
5-10% of our circulating lymphocytes.
There role is to release chemicals from their granules to either induce apoptosis or cause lysis of a targeted cell
There are two groups of phagocytes in the second line of defense, what are they?
Neutrophils and macrophages
Neutrophils are released in large numbers, very quickly, but their lifespan is
Other macrophages called fixed macrophages, may occupy specific tissues. To identify these individual groups, they may have unique names like
kupffer cells (liver)
Alveolar macrophages (lung)
microglial cells (CNS)
Fever is an
abnormally high body temperature due to resetting of the hypothalamic thermostat.
Fever is a non-specific response and
- Speeds up body reactions
-Increases the effects of endogenous antimicrobials
- Sequesters nutrients from microbes