TEST I

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Author:
cjtmonkey
ID:
203980
Filename:
TEST I
Updated:
2013-02-27 22:59:23
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MOLECULAR BIOLOGY
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Description:
INCLUDES LECTURES 1, 2 and LABS 1 - 3
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  1. what is a VIROID
    A virus that only infects plants

    it only contains single RNA strains
  2. PRION
    A small infectious protein that results in improperly folded proteins,  

    causes mad cow disease
  3. Cell Theory
    1. all living things are acomposed of cells

    2. All cells come from preexisting cells 

    3. cell are the basic unit of structure in all living things 

    4. Separated into two groups: Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes
  4. What is a Atom
    1. The basic structural unit of matter

    2. Atomic # is the amount of PROTONS  in and is different for each ELEMENT
  5. What is the Atomic Mass
    It is the number of PROTONS + NEUTRONS
  6. what is a ION
    ATOM with the same number of Protons but a varying number of ELECTRONS (this changes the charge of the ATOM

    • anion = negative charge
    • cation = positive charge
  7. What is a ISOTOPE
    • An ATOM that has the same number of PROTONS but a varying number of NEUTRONS
    • - this changes the mass of the atom
  8. What is the Octed Rule
    All of the noble gases have 8 electrons in their outer valence and are stable

    The remaining elements will donate or receive electrons to acheive an 8 electron shell

    the two models drawn to show this are the Bohr's model and the Lewis Dot Formula
  9. What is a Ionic Bond
    • Formed by passing one electron to another
    •       One atom becomes positive, the other negative and they attract each other

    Occurs between metals and non-metals
  10. What is a COVALENT BOND
    a bond that is formed when electrons are shared between two non metals

    Bonds can be single, doube, triple, tetra

    Will produce polar and non-polar molecules
  11. Non-polar molecule
    A molecule that the electrons from each atom spend equal time around both nuclei
  12. what is a POLAR MOLECULE
    a molecule that the electrons from the smaller atom spend more time around the nucleus of the molecule with the greater positive charge
  13. what is a HYDROGEN BOND
    the weak electrical attraction between positive and negative portions of POLAR MOLECULES
  14. HYDROCARBONS
    the building blocks of complex orgainic molecules
  15. why is WATER so important
    • 1. High Surface Tension - resists breaking
    • 2. Cohesion - water molecules stick to water   molecules
    • 3. Adhesion - water molecules stick to charge molecules
    • 4. High Specific Heat - 1 Calorie/gram
    • 5. Universal Solvent - becomes H+ , OH-
    • pH is relative to the amount H+, OH- present.  -7 = acidic high in H+
    •               +7 = basic high in OH-
  16. What is Chemistry
    The study of matter and how it interact

    Matter = anything that has volume and mass

    volume = anything that takes up space

    mass = how much space
  17. What is the 1st RULE of Thermodynamics
    Energy cannot be created or destroyed

    Only transferred or transformed
  18. What is the 2nd Law of Thermodynamics
    Every transfer or transformation of energy increases the entropy of the universe

    entropy equals randomness

    The quantity of the energy does not change, by the quality does
  19. Energy Coupling
    The transfer of energy from a Catabolic Reaction to a Anabolic Reaction
  20. What is ATP
    Adenosine Tri-Phosphate
    • The high energy molecule that is composed of a ribose, nitrogen base, and a three phospate group. 
    • The phosphate groups are negatively charged and unstable

    Phosphorilization makes molecules more reactive
  21. what is a ENDERGONIC REACTION
    this is associated with Anabolic Reactions and work AGAINST ENTROPY

    • 1. Needs energy INPUT
    • 2. ENERGY is consumed by the reactions and STORED in the PRODUCT
    • 3.
  22. what is a EXERGONIC REACTION
    Associated with CATABOLISM and FAVORS ENTROPY

    LOSS or OUTPUT of ENERGY

    • ENERGY is RELEASES by the REACTANT
    • LOW ENERGY is in the PRODUCTS
  23. What is BIOREMEDIATION
    The use of organisms to remove polluntants from the atmoshpere

    - The engineering of Bacteria with SPECIFIC GENES to AID the environment
  24. Virus in the Lytic Cycle
    Active; takes over the host cell

    uses the machinery of the host cell to make more of its own DNA/RNA, proteins, and other components

    Once an army in created, the cell will burst and the army goes on to infect other cells

    Can swith to the LYSOGENIC CYCLE
  25. what is the Lysogenic Cylce
    the dormant cycle caused by temperature strain

    Lives within the Genome of the host

    Viral DNA is copied every time the host cell divides

    Can switch to the Lytic cylce
  26. what is a CONDENSATION REACTION
    these are associated with Anabolic Reactions

    the forming of a glycosidic bond that requires ATP and the REMOVAL of a WATER MOLECULE
  27. what is a HYDROLYSIS REACTION
    these are associated with CATABOLIC REACTIONS

    Involving the BREAKING of the PEPTIDE BOND between two amino acids

    Requires addind the H and OH from a water molecule to each end of the amino acids

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