Biomedical Core

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Author:
faulkner116
ID:
204009
Filename:
Biomedical Core
Updated:
2013-02-28 13:30:26
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Module15
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Description:
Objective 27-32
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  1. Inflammation is Non-specific response.

    Local signs and symptoms include
    Redness

    Pain

    Heat

    Swelling

    Possible loss of function
  2. Inflammation has three stages, what are they?
    - Vasodilation and increased permeability

    - Emigration of phagocytes from the blood into the interstitial space

    - Tissue repair
  3. The redness and heat are due to the _______ blood flow.  The swelling is because of the _______ vascular permeability.  The cytokines and inflammatory chemicals, released as part of _______, target free nerve ending that result in the perception of _____.
    increased; increased; inflammation; pain
  4. A substance that is recognized as foreign and reacts with product of immune system is an
    antigen
  5. There are four main characteristics that determine the antigenicity of substance:
    recognition as foreign, structural complexity, size organic in nature. Recognition as foreign is the most important of the three.
  6. If a molecule fits all of the criteria, except for size, it is referred to as a
    hapten.

    A hapten doesn't trigger an immune response, unless it binds to another molecule, now it is big enough
  7. If a pathogen is large enough, it may have multiple sites that can react with the immune system. These sites are called
    antigenic determinants or epitopes
  8. The main players in adaptive immunity are the
    lymphocytes
  9. Adaptive Immunity

    T lymphocytes
    - Produced in bone marrow, mature in thymus

    - T-helper (CD4) sells

    - T-cytotoxic (CD8) cells

    - T-regulator cells

    - Memory T-helper and T-cytotoxic cells
  10. Adaptive Immunity

    B lymphocytes
    - Produced and mature in the bone marrow

    - Activated to become plasma cells
  11. Lymphocyte:

    T-helper cells

    What is their function?
    The middle-man or main "helper" of the immune response. The T-helper cells will receive information from non-specific phagocytic cells and pass that information on to generate a specific response to a particular antigen. These are also called CD4 T-cells, due to the presence of the CD4 marker.
  12. Lymphocyte:

    T-cytotoxic Cells

    What is their function?
    These T-cells destroy abnormal cells. Viral infected cells and cancerous cells are their main targets. These are also called CD8 T-cells
  13. Lymphocyte:

    T-regulator cells

    What is their function?
    T-regulator cells keep the immune system from getting out of control. They decrease the reactivity of the other types of T-cells. This is essential for maintaining self-tolerance
  14. Lymphocyte:

    Memory T-cytotoxic and Memory T-helper cells

    What is their function?
    Produced with an initial exposure to an antigen to provide memory of the event and a rapid-reponse if re-exposed to the antigen. Memory cells do not participate the first time around.
  15. What are the two types of adaptive immunity?
    cell-mediated immunity

    antibody-mediated immunity
  16. In cell mediated immunity, T-cytotoxic cells
    are activated directly against abnormal cells, such as cancer cells or even tissue transplants.
  17. In antibody-mediated immunity, B-lymphocytes are
    activated to become plasma cells, which produce and secrete specific antibodies
  18. Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) group of
    genes that code for a group of trans-membrane proteins, also called human leukocyte antigens (HLA), on the surfaced of all nucleated cells
  19. MHC Molecules:

    MHC class-I molecules
    - Present on all body cells, except red blood cells
  20. MHC Molecules:

    MHC class-II molecules
    - Present on the surface of antigen-presenting cells (APC's)

    - APC's have a primary responsibility to present antigen to other components of the immune system. (APC's are usually phagocytes, but B cells can be APC's)
  21. Cells that initially detect the antigen to present it to the rest of the immune system are called
    antigen-presenting cells (APC)
  22. Antigen processing and presentation is required for
    cell-mediated and antibody-mediated immunity
  23. APCs are commonly ________, but B cells can present _______.
    phagocytes; antigen
  24. Antigen Presentation:

    Once an antigen is processed, it is ready to meet the
    middle-man, the T-helper cell.

    - the T-helper cell, through a specific T-cell receptor will bind to the antigen fragment presented by the MHC-class molecule.
  25. Antigen Presentation:

    Binding as well as cytokine stimulation results in the activation and proliferation of the
    T-helper cell.

    - Clonal selection- more T-helpers and T-memory cells
  26. An inactive T-helper, specific for the antigen, will bind with its T-cell receptor to the presented antigen on the APC. This will activated the T-cell. The activated T-cell will proliferate (increase its numbers) and differentiate (mature). This process is called
    clonal selection
  27. T-Cytotoxic Activation:

    Inactive T-cytotoxic cells bind to
    abnormal cells presenting viral proteins or cancer proteins on MHC class-I molecule
  28. T-Cytotoxic Activation:

    T-helper cells act as a
    co-stimulator
  29. T-Cytotoxic Activation:

    The T-cytotoxic cells will also undergo clonal selection
    Increased T-cytotoxic cells and memory T-cytotoxic cells
  30. B-Cell Activation:

    B-cells can be activated by direct recognition of antigen through B-cell
    receptors and through T-helper cell activation.
  31. B-Cell Activation:

    B-cells undergo clonal selection
    - Activated to become plasma cells (Synthesis of antibodies)

    - Produce B-memory cells
  32. Steps in Antigen Processing and Presentation:

    Exogenous Antigens
    - Ingestion of the antigen

    - Digestion of the antigen into fragments

    - Synthesis of MHC class-II molecules

    - Vesicular packaging of class-II molecules

    - Fusion of fragment and class-II vesicles

    - Binding of fragments to class-II molecules

    - Insertion of the antigen- MHC class-II complexes in the plasma membrane for recognition.
  33. Steps in Antigen Processing and Presentation:

    Endogenous Antigens
    - Digestion of the antigen into fragments

    - Synthesis of MHC class-I molecules

    - Binding of fragments to class-I molecules

    - Vesicular packaging of class-I molecules

    - Insertion of the antigen- MHC class-I complexes in the plasma membrane for recognition.

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