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Core and periphery
The concept of a developed core surrounded by an undeveloped periphery. The concept can be applied at various scales.
The theoretical measurement of the amount of land and water a population requires to produce the resources it consumes and to absorb its waste under prevailing technology.
Global climate change
The changes in global patterns of rainfall and temperature, sea level, habitats and the incidences of droughts, floods and storms, resulting from changes in the Earth's atmosphere, believed to be mainly caused by the enhanced greenhouse effect.
GNI (Gross National Income)
The total value of goods and services produced within a country together with the balance of income and payments from or to other countries.
The movement of people, involving a change of residence. It can be internal or external (international) and voluntary or forced. It does not include temporary circulations such as commuting or tourism.
Transfers of money/goods by foreign workers to their home countries.
A severe reduction in the quality of soils. The term includes soil erosion, salinization and soil exhaustion (loss of fertility).
Water scarcity: Physical
Where water resource development is approaching or has exceeded unsustainable levels; it relates water availability to water demand and implies that arid areas are not necessarily water scarce.
Water scarcity: Economic
Where water is available locally but not accessible for human, institutional or financial capital reasons.
Increasing ratio of people aged 65+ in a population.
Anti-natalist population policy
Policy that attempts to reduce the population.
Pro-natalist population policy
The policy of a government, society or social group to increase population growth by attempting to raise the birth rate.
People who claim to be refugees and seek asylum in another country. They usually have to undergo some legal procedures in which the host country decides whether they qualify for refugee status or not.
The number of live births per 1000 people per year.
The largest population of human/animals/plants that a particular area/environment/ecosystem can carry or support.
A census is the procedure of systematically acquiring and recording information about the members of a given population. It is regularly occurring and official count of a particular population. The term is used mostly in connection with national "population and door to door censuses" (to be taken every 10 years according to United Nations recommendations), agriculture, and business censuses. It is widely recognized that population and housing censuses are vital for the planning of any society.
Child mortality rate
Includes deaths within the first five years after birth.
Infant mortality rate (IMR)
The number of deaths of infants (one year of age or younger) per 1000 live births.
The number of deaths per 1000 people per year.
Crude birth rate
The number of births in a given population during a given time period divided by the total population and multiplied by 1000.
Crude death rate
The number of deaths in a given population during a given time period divided by the total population and multiplied by 1000.
Demographic transition model
Sequence of changes over a period of time in the relationship between birth and death rates and overall population.
The statistical study of populations. It can be a very general science that can be applied to any kind of dynamic population, that is, one that changes over time or space. It encompasses the study of the size, structure and distribution of populations, and spatial and/or temporal changes in them in response to birth, migration, aging and death.
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