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  1. Personality
    the set of psychological traits and mechanisms within the individual that is organized and relatively enduring and that influences his/her interactions with, and adaptations to, the environment
  2. Personality Triangle Points
    • - thinking
    • - feeling
    • - behavior
  3. Lvls of Personality Analysis: Human Nature
    traits and mechanisms of the personality that are typical of our species and possessed by everyone

    - how we are "like others"
  4. Lvls of Personality Analysis: Individual and Group Differences
    individual differences refer to ways in which each person is like some other people

    group differences refer to ways in which people of one group differ from people of another group

    - how we are like "some others"
  5. Lvls of Personality Analysis: Individual Uniqueness
    refers to the fact that every individual has personal and unique qualities not shared by any other person in the world

    - how we are like "no others"
  6. Domain of Knowledge
    specialty area of science and scholarship, where psychologists have focused on
  7. Six Domains of Knowledge
    • - dispositional
    • - biological
    • - intrapsychic
    • - cognitive-experiential
    • - social and culture
    • - adjustment
  8. Dispositional Domain
    deals with ways in which individuals differ from one another and, therefore, cuts across all other domains

    - focuses on number and nature of fundamental dispositions
  9. Biological Domain
    core assumption approaches to personality is that humans are collections of biological systems

    these systems provide the building blocks for behavior, thought, and emotion
  10. Intrapsychic Domain
    deals with the mental mechanisms of personality, many of which operate outside conscious awareness
  11. Cognitive-Experiential Domain
    focuses on cognition and subjective experience, such as conscious thoughts, feelings, beliefs, and desires about oneself and others
  12. Social and Culture Domain
    assumption that personality affects, and is affected by, cultural and social contexts

    - looking at the human lvl of analysis, all human beings have a common set of concerns to their social contexts

    - by nature we are social beings; isolation can lead to other things
  13. Adjustment Domain
    personality plays a key role in how we cope, adapt, and adjust to events in our daily lives

    - personality linked with important health outcomes and problems in coping adjustment
  14. Self Report Data (S-Data)
    information provided by a person through an interview or survey

    - individuals have access to a wealth of information about themselves that is inaccessible to anyone else
  15. S-Data Limitations
    • - people may not respond honestly
    • - people may lack accurate self-knowledge
  16. Observer Report Data (O-Data)
    information provided by someone else about another person

    provides access to info not accessible through other sources; multiple ovservers ca nbe used to assess a person
  17. (O-Data) - Naturalistic Observation
    observers witness and record events that occur in the normal course of participants lives
  18. (O-Data) - Artificial Observation
    occurs in artificial settings or situations
  19. Test Data (T-Data)
    information provided by standardized tests or testing situations to see if different people behave differently in identical situations

    - designed to elicit behaviors that are "scored" and serve as indicators of personality
  20. T-Data Limitations
    • - participants often try and guess what trait is being measured and then alter their behavior to create certain impressions
    • - difficult to know if participants define testing situation as intended by experiment
    • - researcher might influence how participants behave
  21. Physiological Data
    includes information about a person's level of arousal, reactivity to stimuli as potential indicators of personality
  22. Life-Outcome Data (L-Data)
    information that can be gleaned from events, activities, and outcomes in a person's life that are available for public scrutiny (ex. marriage, speeding tickets)

    can serve as important source of "real life" information about personality
  23. Clinical Interview
    face-to-face encounter; goal is to gather detailed information concerning a person's problems, feelings, lifestyle, relationships, and other relevent personal history
  24. Mental Status Exam
    uses both clinical observations and standard questions to quickly assess gross cognitive functioning

    the use of recognizing "red flags"
  25. Projectives
    category of testing in which the person is presented with ambiguous stimuli and asked to describe what he/she sees

    how they respond reflects how the patient reacts to ambiguity in their lives

    ex. Rorschach inkblot test
  26. Thematic Apperception Test
    pictoral projective test with 30 black-and-white pictures of individuals in vague situation in which the individual is asked to make up a dramatic story about

    - people identify with one of the characters and project their own circumstances, needs, emotions, and sense of reality/fantasy into the story
  27. House-Tree-Person-Kinetic Family Test
    pictures of trees, houses, and such are asked to be drawn by the patient, conclusions drawn from how the picture was drawn
  28. Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)
    465 true or false questions that try to catch the patient if he/she is lying

    often used in courtroom cases (ex. custody cases)
  29. Traits as Internal Causal Properties
    individuals carry their desires, needs, and wants from one situation to the next

    these desires and needs explain the behavior of individuals who posses them
  30. Traits as Purely Descriptive Summaries
    traits only describe the attributes of a person; no assumption about internality or causality
  31. Lexical Approach
    all important differences have become encoated in natural language

    • - more synonyms a trait has - more important in that language
    • - looks at which core traits appear in other languages; if in that language, then it is a core describer of personality
    • - can be used to identify which personality traits are similar
  32. Statistical Approach
    provides a means for determining which personality traits share some property of belong within the same group
  33. Factor Analysis (Statistical Approach)
    useful in reducing the large array of diverse traits into a smaller, more useful set of underlying factors
  34. Factor Loading (Statistical Approach)
    index of how much of a variation in an item is "explained" by a factor
  35. Eysenck's Hierarchical Model of Traits
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    • personality is organized hierarchically; the broadest level of the hierarchy, an individual's personality, can be described in terms of 3 "types":- extraversion- neuroticism- psychoticism
  36. Eysenck's Hierarchical Model - Extraversion
    high scorers tend to like parties, have many friends, require people around to talk to, display carefree and easy manner, and have a high activity level
  37. Eysenck's Hierarchical Model - Neuroticism
    high scorers are worriers, anxious, depressed, have trouble sleeping, experience an array of psychosomatic symptoms, and over-react to negative emotions
  38. Eysenck's Hierarchical Model - Psychoticism
    high scorers are solitary, lack empathy, often cruel and inhumane, insensitive to the pain and suffering of others, aggressive, penchant for strange and unusual, impulsive, antisocial
  39. Cattell's 16 Personality Factor System
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    scores 16 personality "factors" on two ends of a spectrum
  40. Five Factor Model Factors (OCEAN)
    • - openness
    • - conscientiousness
    • - extraversion
    • - agreeableness
    • - neuroticism
  41. Five Factor Model - Openness
    curious, original, intellectual, creative, open to new ideas
  42. Five Factor Model - Conscientiousness
    organized, systematic, punctual, achievement oriented, dependable
  43. Five Factor Model - Extraversion
    outgoing, talkative, sociable, enjoys being in social situations
  44. Five Factor Model - Agreeableness
    affable, tolerant, sensitive, trusting, king, warm
  45. Five Factor Model- Neuroticism
    emotional stability; anxious, irritable, tempermental, moody
  46. Differetial Psychology
    identifying individual differences based on traits
  47. Three Fundamental Assumptions about Traits
    • 1. There are meaningful, individual differences among people's personality traits
    • 2. Personality traits remain relatively stable and consistent over time
    • 3. Personality traits remain relatively stable and consistent across situations
  48. Assumption - Meaningful Differences Between Individuals
    people differ in amounts of traits; differences can be accurately measured

    every personality is the product of a combination of a few basic, primary traits

    degree of the trait affects the life of the individual
  49. Assumption - Consistence Over Time
    although consistent over time, how a trait is manifested in behavior may change over time

    attitudes and personality traits are not the same; attitudes easily influenced and changed by persuasion
  50. Assumption - Consistency Across Situations
    if situations control how people behave, then the existence or relevance of traits is questionable

    Mischel - focus on situation factors and abandon explaining behavior with traits
  51. Consistency Across Situations - Strong Situation
    situation in which most people react in a similar way that demands the individual to act in a particular maner

    ex. work, grief following the loss of a loved one
  52. Consistency Across Situations - Weak Situation
    situation that is more ambiguous; less demands, allowing for a broader range of behavior

    personality has the strongest influence here

    ex. party, perception of Rorschach inkblots
Card Set:
2013-02-28 20:51:59
personality psychology

Flashcards for first psych test, chapters 1-3
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