Immune System

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Immune System
2013-02-28 14:47:00

anatomy 2
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  1. Skin is a highly...
    keratinized epithelial membrane
  2. Secretions of the epithelial tissues include
    • acidic secretions
    • sebum
    • hydrochloric acid
    • saliva
    • mucous
  3. _________ confront microorganisms that breach the external barriers
  4. _______ are the main phagocytes of the body
  5. ________ are the first responders and become phagocytic when they encounter infectious material
  6. _________ are weakly phagocytic but are important in defending the body against parasitic worms
  7. ________ have the ability to bind with, ingest, and kill a wide range of bacteria
    mast cells
  8. _______________ are able to lyse and kill cancer cells and virally infected cells before the adaptive immune system has been activated
    natural killer cells
  9. Inflammation occurs any time the body tissues are injured by
    • physical trauma
    • intense heat
    • irritating chemicals
    • infection by viruses, fungi, bacteria
  10. The four cardinal signs of acute inflammation are
    • redness¬†
    • heat
    • swelling
    • pain
  11. Chemicals cause dilation of surrounding blood vessels to increase blood flow to the area and increase permeability, which allows ___________ and ________ to enter the tissues
    • fluid containing clotting factors
    • antibodies
  12. Soon after inflammation, the damaged site is invaded by
    neutrophils and macrophages
  13. _________________ enhance the innate defenses by attacking microorganisms directly or by hindering their ability to reproduce
    Antimicrobial proteins
  14. ____________ are small proteins produced by virally infected cells that help protect surrounding healthy cells
  15. ____________ refers to a group of about 20 plasma proteins that provide a major mechanism for destroying foreign pathogens in the body
  16. fever is a __________ response to microorganisms
  17. The __________________ recognize and destroy the specific antigen that initiated the response
    adaptive defenses
  18. The immune response is a ___________ response
    systemic response
  19. After an initial exposure the immune response is able to
    recognize the same antigen and mount a faster and stronger defensive attack
  20. _____________ is provided  by antibodies produced by B lymphocytes presented in the body's "humors" or fluids
    Humoral immunity
  21. _____________ is associated with T lymphocytes and has living cells as its protective factor
    Cellular immunity
  22. _______ are substances that can mobilize the immune system and provoke an immune response
  23. _________________ are able to stimulate the proliferation of specific lymphocytes and antibodies, and to react with the activated lymphocytes and produced antibodies
    Complete antigens
  24. ________ are incomplete antigens that are not capable of stimulating the immune response, but if they interact with proteins of the body they may be recognized as potentially harmful
  25. ______________ are a specific part of an antigen that are immunogenic and bind to free antibodies or activated lymphocytes
    Antigenic determinates
  26. Lymphocytes originate in the _________ and when released become immunocompetent in either the __________ or the ___________
    • bone marrow
    • Thymus (T cells)
    • Bone marrow (B cells)
  27. ________________ engulf antigens and present fragments of these antigens on their surfaces where they can be recognized by T cells
    antigen-presenting cells
  28. THe immunocompetent but naive B lymphocyte is activated when
    antigens bind to its surface receptors
  29. ____________ is the process of the B cell growing and multiplying to form an army of cells that are capable of recognizing the same antigen
    Clonal selection
  30. __________ are the antibody--secreting cells of the humoral response; most clones develop into plasma cells
    plasma cells
  31. The clones that do not become plasma cells develop into
    memory cells
  32. The primary immune response occurs on first exposure to a particular antigen with a lag time of about
    3-6 days
  33. The secondary immune response occurs when someone is _________ to the same antigen. It is faster, more prolonged, and more effective
  34. ________ occurs when the body mounts an immune response to an antigen
    Active immunity
  35. ___________ occurs when a person is given a vaccine
    artificially acquired active immunity
  36. ____________ occurs when a person is given performed antibodies
    passive immunity
  37. ___________________ occurs when a mother's antibodies enter fetal circulation
    naturally acquired passive immunity
  38. ______________________ occurs when a person is given preformed antibodies that have been harvested from another person
    artificially acquired passive immunity
  39. ________________________ are proteins secreted by plasma cells in response to an antigen that are capable of binding to that antigen
    antibodies or immunoglobulins
  40. The basic antibody structure consists of
    four looping polypeptide chains linked together by disulfide bonds
  41. Antibodies are divided into five classes based on their structure:
    • IgM
    • IgG
    • IgA
    • IgD
    • IgE
  42. ___________ contain a few hundred gene segments that tare shuffled and combined to form all of the different B cells that are found in the body
    Embryonic cells
  43. ____________ occurs when complement binds to antibodies attached to antigens, and leads to lysis of the cell
    complement fixation and activation
  44. ___________ occurs when antibodies block specific sites on viruses or bacterial exotoxins, causing them to lose their toxic effects
  45. __________ occurs when antibodies cross-link to antigens on cells, causing clumping
  46. __________ occurs when soluble molecules are cross-linked into large complexes that settle out of solution
  47. __________ are commercially prepared antibodies specific for a single antigenic determinant
    monoclonal antibodies
  48. The stimulus for clonal selection and differentiation of T cells is _____________, although their recognition mechanism is different from B cells
    binding of antigen
  49. T cells must accomplish a double recognition process
    • they must recognize both self (an MHC protein of a body cell)
    • nonself (antigen) at the same time
  50. First step of Tcell activation
    T cell antigen receptors (TCRs) bind to antigen-MHC complex on the surface of a body cell
  51. Second step of T cell activation
    A T cell must recognize one or more co-stimulatory signals. Once activated, a T cell enlarges and proliferates to form a clone of cells that differentiate and perform functions according to their T cell class
  52. _________ include hormone like glycoproteins released by activated T cells and macrophages
  53. _____________ stimulate proliferation of other T cells and B cells that have already become bound to antigen
    Helper T cells
  54. _____________ also known as killer T cells, are the only T cells that can directly attack and kill other cells displaying antigen to which they have been sensitized
  55. ______________ releaes cytokines that suppress the activity of both B cells and other types of T cells
    Suppressor T cells
  56. __________ are found in the intestine and are more similar to NK cells than other T cells
    Gamma delta T cells
  57. WIthought helper T cells there is no ______________ because the helper T cells direct or help complete the activation of all other immune cells
    adaptive immune response
  58. __________ are tissue grafts transplanted from one body site to another in the same person
  59. _____________are grafts donated to a patient by a genetically identical individual such as an identical twin
  60. ________ are grafts transplanted from individuals that are not genetically identical but belong to the same species
  61. _____________ are grafts taken from another animal species
  62. Transplant success depends on the similarity of the tiuess because
    cytotoxic T cells, NK cells, and antibodies work to destroy foreign tissues
  63. _____________ are any congenital or acquired conditions that cause immune cells, phagocytes, or complement to behave abnormally
  64. _________________ is a congenital condition that produces a deficit of B and T cells
    sever combined immunodeficiency (SCID)
  65. __________ cripples the immune system by interfering with helper T cells
    Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)
  66. _____________ occur when the immune system loses its ability to differentiate between self and non self and ultimately destroys itself
    Autoimmune diesases
  67. _____________ are the result of the immune system causing tissue damage as it fights off a perceived threat that would otherwise be harmless
    hypersensitivites (allergies)
  68. _________________ begin within seconds after contact and last about half an hour
    immediate hypersensitivities
  69. _______________ take 1-3 hours to occur and last 10-15 hours
    Subacute hypersensitivities
  70. ________________ reactions take 1-3 days to occur and may take weeks to go away
    Delayed hypersensitivity
  71. ___________ of the immune system originate in the liver and spleen during weeks 1-9 of embryonic development; later the bone marrow takes over this role
    stem cells
  72. In late fetal life and shortly after birth the young lymphocytes develop
    self-tolerance and immunocompetence