Cosc Ch. 4

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Cosc Ch. 4
2013-02-28 16:24:57

Cosc Ch. 4
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  1. What is the operating system?
    A set of programs designed to manage the resources of a computer?
  2. What is the primary reason a computer needs an operating system?
    To coordinate the interactions of its hardware components and application software
  3. What would you compare o coputers OS to?
    Traffic officer
  4. What is the first function of an OS?
    Starting the computer
  5. What does load mean?
    To transfer something from a storage device to memory.
  6. What is volatile memory?
    storage that is very fast but that is erased when the power goes off.
  7. Is RAM volatile or non-volatile?
  8. What is booting?
    The process of loading the OS to memory
  9. what is a cold boot?
    starting a computer that has not been turned on yet.
  10. What is a warm boot?
    restarting a computer that is already on.
  11. When are restarts or warm boots often necessary?
    After installing new software or after an application crashes or stops working.
  12. What is a kernel?
    the central part of the OS that consists of the instructions that control the actions the OS uses most frequently
  13. Where does the Kernel reside in at all times?
    The RAM
  14. What is the first step in booting?
    Activate the basic input/output system (BIOS)
  15. What does BIOS stand for?
    Basic input/output system
  16. The is the second step of booting?
    Power On Self Test (POST)
  17. What does POST stand for?
    Power On Self Test
  18. What is the third step of Booting?
    Load the operating system into RAM
  19. What is the fourth step of booting?
    Configure and customize settings
  20. What is the fifth step of booting?
    Load needed system utilities.
  21. What is the last step of booting?
    Authenticate the user
  22. What is sleep mode?
    Transfers the current state of your computer to RAM and turn off all unneeded functions placing computer in low power state.
  23. What is hibernate mode?
    Puts your open docs and programs on your hard disk and then turns off your computer, used mostly in notebooks
  24. What is Hybrid sleep?
    A combination of sleep and hibernate and puts open docs and programs in both RAM and hard disk, and then paces your computer in a low power state.
  25. What does ROM stand for?
    Read-Only Memory
  26. Is ROM volatile ore nonvolatile?
  27. What is the setup program?
    it includes settings that control the computer's hardware
  28. What is the registry?
    a database that stores the Configuration info about installed peripherals and software
  29. What is a driver?
    A utility program that contains instructions to make a peripheral device addressable or usable by an OS
  30. What is Plug-and-Play?
    An OSĀ  that detects compatible peripherals that you might have installed while the power was switched off, load the necessary drivers, and check for conflicts with other devices
  31. What is Authentication?
    Verifying that you are indeed the person who is authorized to use the computer.
  32. What is a profile?
    a record of specific user's preferences for the desktop them, icons, and menu styles, is associated with your username
  33. what is an account?
    Your username, password, and storage space
  34. What is a single tasking operating system?
    An Os that could only run one application at a time
  35. What are multitasking operating systems?
    An OS that enable you to run more than one application at the same time.
  36. Which application is the active one, the foreground or the background?
    The foreground
  37. What is preemptive multitasking?
    an environment in which programs do not run from start to finish but are interrupted or suspended in order to start or continue another task
  38. What is a buffer?
    An area tat temporarily holds data and instructions
  39. What is virtual memory?
    Using a portion of the cmoputers hard disk as an extension of the RAM
  40. In virtual memory, what are pages?
    program instructions and data are divided into units of fixed size
  41. In virtual memory, what is a swap file?
    If the memory is full, then the OS stores copies of pages in this hard disk file
  42. What is paging?
    transferring of files from hard disk to RAM and back
  43. What is thrashing?
    Excessive paging that slows down the system
  44. What is readyboost?
    A feature on Windows vista and 7 that allows for the allocation of space on removable memory
  45. what are interrupts?
    Signals that inform the OS that an event has occurred and is in need of immediate attention.
  46. What are interrupt handlers?
    Miniprograms that immediately respond when an interrupt occurs.
  47. What is an Interrupt Vector Table?
    Where responses are held in the RAM when multiple interrupts occur.
  48. What is an interrupt request?
    The interrupting of an event by an interrupting signal
  49. What is a User Interface?
    Part of the OS that facilitates your interaction with the computer and the programs you use.
  50. What are some user interface functions?
    • Start application programs
    • Manage storage devices
    • Shutdown safely
  51. What are the three types od user interfaces?
    • graphical
    • Menu
    • Command
  52. What is GUI?
    Graphical User Interface, uses graphics and point and click to make the OS and programs easier to use.
  53. What is the Desktop?
    The screen image that appears after the OS finishes loading into RAM
  54. What is on the left side of the desktop?
    Start buttons and Icons
  55. What is on the right side of the desktop?
    The sidebar and gadgets
  56. What are gadgets?
    applications that appear as active icons that are constantly running to keep you updated
  57. What happens in the center of the desktop?
    This is where programs appear in a window structure.
  58. What is the Menu-driven Interface?
    On-screen textbased menus show all the options available at a given point
  59. What is the command-line user interface?
    Requires you to type commands using keywords that tell the OS what to do one line at a time.
  60. What are the three categories of operating systems?
    • Stand-alone
    • Server
    • Embedded
  61. What is a stand-alone OS?
    OS that are used by a single user
  62. What is a server OS?
    OS used in a client server network
  63. What is an embedded OS?
    OS that are found on ROM chips in portable or dedicated devices
  64. When was windows 3.0 announced?
  65. when was windows 3.1 released?
  66. When was windows XP released?
  67. When was XP proffessional released?
  68. When was windows Vista released?
  69. When was windows 7 released?
  70. What are new Mac OSX named after?
    Large felines, cheetah snow leopard, tiger
  71. What is Unix?
    First OS written in C language that is free, installed primarily o workstations and feature multitasking
  72. What is Mac OSX based on?
  73. Where was UNIX developed?
    AT&T Bell laboratories in 1969
  74. What is Linux?
    An open source software developed in 1991 as a free alternative to UNIX
  75. What is an Open Source Software?
    The source code of the program itself is available for all to see and use
  76. What is a Platform?
    The combination of microprocessor chip and operating system used by a type of computer, Mac or PC
  77. What is Palm OS?
    An OS developed for PDA's
  78. What is Symbian OS?
    OS for data enabled smart phones, Usually cheap ones.
  79. What is Android?
    An OS by google for mobile devices thats supports CMDA
  80. What is iOS?
    OS that supports iPhone.
  81. What are system utilities?
    Programs that work in tandem with the operating system and perform services that keep the computer system running smoothly.
  82. What is backup software?
    copies of data from the computers hard disk to backup devices such as flash drives.
  83. What is a full backup?
    Backup which includes all files and data on the entire hard disk, or an incremental backup
  84. What is an incremental backup?
    Only copies files that have been created or changed since the last backup occurred
  85. What is Drive imaging software?
    Creates a mirror image of the entire disk including the OS, applications, and all files and data
  86. what is antivirus software?
    Protects a computer from computer viruses
  87. What is a file manager?
    a program that helps you organize and manage the data stores on your disk
  88. What is a search utility?
    Wnables you to search an entire hard disk or any indexed network storage device for a file.
  89. What is a bad sector?
    A portion of the disk that is unable to store data reliably.
  90. What is a disk scanning program?
    error checking program that can detect and resolve a number of physical and logical problems that may occur when your computer store files on a disk.
  91. What is a cleanup disk utility?
    Like a disc scanning program but it doesnt rectify any problems.
  92. What does a disk being fragmented mean?
    a disk with data scattered around in several locations that slows disc access
  93. What are disc defragmentation programs?
    Programs used to reorganize data on the disk so that file pieces are reassembled as one chunk of disk space created more structure and efficiency.
  94. What is a file compression utility?
    It exchanges programs and data efficiently by reducing the size of a file by up to 80% without harming the data.
  95. What is an archive?
    a single file that contains two or more files stored in a compressed format
  96. What are some accessibility utilities?
    • Magnifier
    • On-screen Keyboard
    • Speech Recognition
    • Narrator
  97. What does a system update do?
    Keeps your OS up to date with fixes or protections against external environment changes.
  98. What is a boot disk?
    A disk that in case of an emrgency or boot failure can load a reduced version of the OS that can be used to troubleshoot.
  99. Is it okay to just switch off the power to a computer? Why?
    No, because the OS may not be done writing certain files to the drive and file fragments that result from improper shutdown could cause permanent damage to the OS or files
  100. What is Safe Mode?
    An operating model that loads a minimal set of drivers that function correctly.