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Abolishes Slavery (1865)
Gives black citizenship (1868)
Black male suffrage (1870)
President during the Civil War. 16th President. Kept the Union together. Played vital role in abolishment of slavery. Killed by John Wilkes Booth 5 days after surrender of the south, April 15th 1865.
Was VP during Lincoln's presidency and took when Lincoln was killed. Was a democrat from Tennessee. He vetoed all republican bills until republicans gain 2/3 majority in congress and can override vetoes. Johnson tells southern states not to listen to congress.
Plans for Reconstruction
10% Plan (Lincoln): Southern States readmitted after 10% of voters pledged allegiance to U.S. Also had to acknowledge emancipation of slaves. Lenient.
Radical Republicans (Wade-Davis Bill): 50% State voters must pledge allegiance. Lincoln Pocket vetoed (didn't sign).
Military (Andrew Johnson): Certain leading confederates disenfranchised. Confederate debt gone. Southern States had to ratify 13th Amendment.
- State laws that attempted to keep blacks down.
- Established curfews
- Vagrancy laws (not working)
- labor constructs: had to sign contracts for a year of work, if they quit early they lose all wages they earned
- Land restrictions: could rent land or homes only in rural areas. Forced them to live on plantations.
Ulysses S. Grant
Had a corrupt administration, eventually making republican party lose power to the democrats. One of the factors which led to the end of reconstruction.
Tenure of Office Act
President cannot remove a member of cabinet without approval from senate. Andrew Johnson fires Edwin M. Stanton against the act, breaking a law. Johnson is charged for "high crimes and misdemeanors" and just misses being impeached by one vote.
The "Pittsburgh" of the South
Plessy V. Ferguson
(1896) For segregation. "Separate but equal"
- Name given to African Americans who migrated from the south to Kansas in the late 1800's.
- First general migration of blacks following civil war.
- Escaping KKK, Jim Crow Laws, etc.
- First major U.S. discovery of silver ore. Prospectors rushed to the area.
- Contributed to the growth of Nevada and San Francisco and advances in mining technology.
Battle of Little Bighorn
(1876) 2500 Indians v. 264 Americans. General Custer decides to rush Indians seeing a small village not knowing there are over 5,000 of them just over the hill. Custer and his men are all killed.
Him and his band of 700 Indians evade US Army for 1700 miles. Hope to rendezvous with sitting bull. Gets caught.
- (1887) End of Native American Culture
- Tried to Americanize and Christianize them.
- Tried to make the men farmers
- Children sent to Indian schools
- 1924 Indians gain citizenship and right to vote.
- Failed policy, Indian resistance and corruption.
A Century of Dishonor
- Written by Helen Hunt Jackson published 1881
- Detailed the plight of the Indian people.
- Patented barbed wire.
- Open range was no more
- Range wars: conflicting claims over land and water.
- Black soldiers who fought in the Civil War.
- First peacetime all-black regiments in the regular U.S. Army.
- Built in New York City after Tenement House Act of 1879.
- Looked like dumbbells because of the shape of building footprint.
- Houses had to have a window in each inhabitable room and plain air, met with air shafts.
- American author and humorist. Wrote Tom Sawyer
- For emancipation
Munn v. Illinois
- For establishing maximum rates for storing grains.
- States have power to regulate private property in the public interest.
Stalwarts and Half-Breeds
- Factions in republican party in 1880's.
- Stalwarts: Defended spoils system (patronage)
- Half-breeds: Reform but supported spoils
- Independents: Opposed spoils system.
Chester A. Arthur
- Became president after assassination of James A. Garfield.
- Advocated and enforced Pendleton Civil Service Act.
Pendleton Civil Service Act
- Reformed spoils system (Patronage)
- "Magna Carta" of civil service reform.
- 1883: 14,000 out of 117,000 federal gov't jobs became service exam positions.
- 1900: 100,000 out of 200,000
- 22nd and 24th president
- Only president to serve two non-consecutive terms.
- Beginning of 2nd term caused panic of 1893
- Opened way for republican landslide of 1894
Interstate Commerce Act
- Designed to regulate railroad industry and it's monopolistic practices.
- Created Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC) to monitor.
Presidential elections from 1864-1900
- None of the presidents did anything.
- 3 presidents assassinated in 35 years.
- Lots of Corruption
- One of the groups of southern republicans.
- Most diverse group
- Some where ex-Whigs
- Some looked at republican party as a way of settling old scores and relief from debt and wartime destruction.
- Southern whites who supported reconstruction and republican party.
White northerners w/ a desire to reform unprogressive south by developing its material resources.
1,776 mile railroad line across the western half of the U.S. Connected with existing eastern railroads it connected Atlantic and Pacific coasts.
- John D. Rockefeller's business (richest man in modern history.
- Was the largest oil refiner in the world.
- Used horizontal and vertical integration.
- Aggressive pricing and business techniques.
- Broken up by U.S. supreme court in 1911
John D. Rockefeller
- Founder of Standard Oil
- Richest man in modern history
- Used vertical and horizontal integration
- Was also a philanthropist.
- Formed U.S. Steel. A huge Monopoly.
- Used Horizontal Integration - Buying all competitors so there is no competition.
- Wrote Gospel of Weath.
"Gospel of Wealth"
- Written by Andrew Carnegie.
- Encouraged philanthropy from the rich.
- Portrayed him as a captain of industry.
Was an Immigration station from 1910-1940 procession over a million Asian immigrants into the U.S.
Chinese Exclusion Act
- Passed in 1882
- Suspended Chinese immigration, limited civil rights of resident Chinese, and forbade their naturalization.
- Chinese were seen as potential competitors by white workers and proprietors of small businesses causing an anti-Chinese movement.
American Federation of Labor (AFL)
- One of the first federations of labor unions.
- "Pure and simple unionism"
- Fought to bargain with employers for better working conditions, shorter hours, higher wages.
- In return offered compliant firms day-to-day relations with highly skilled wage earners.
- Leading American railroad developer.
- Robber Barron
- 9th richest American in history
- Part of Tweed Ring
- Organized group that controlled a city's political party.
- Beginning of organized crime in America.
- Give services to voters and businesses in exchange for political and financial support.
- Tweed Ring
Boss of Tammany Hall political machine
William Jennings Bryan
- Dominant force in the populist wing of Democratic party
- Chosen as candidate after famous "Cross of gold" which pleaded for unlimited coinage of silver.
- Took more states than McKinley but not the ones that mattered.
"Cross of Gold"
- Speech delivered by William Jennings Bryan
- Unlimited coinage of silver.
- Credited for given him nomination as president.
- Political party growing out of Farmers Alliance. Called for nationalizing of railroads, telephone, and telegraph, graduated income tax, and "sub-treasury" w/ loans for farmers.
- Wanted free and unlimited coinage of silver.
- Not easily dismissed, 1892 election won many congressional seats and more than a million votes for their presidential candidate.
- (National Grange of the Patrons of Husbandry)
- Organized in 1867 by Oliver H. Kelley
- Objectives: To enhance lives of isolated farmers through social, educational, and fraternal activities.
- Went into politics and strove to regulate railway rates and fees charged by railroads, warehouses, and grain elevators.
- Founded in Texas in 1870's.
- Came together to break grip of railroads and manufacturers through cooperative buying and selling.
- Not very successful because didn't allow black membership
- Populist party grows out of Farmers Alliance
- Immigrants provided a labor force for industrial expansion
- Old immigrants: from North and Western Europe. Educated, middle class, brought customs from countries.
- New Immigrants: From Southern Europe, Italy, Russia, Poland, Jews. Uneducated and poor.
- Gateway for millions of immigrants into the U.S.
- Nations busiest immigrant inspection station from 1892-1934.
- 25th president of the U.S.
- Assassinated in 1901.
- Led nation to victory in Spanish-American war.
- Told commodore Dewey to descend upon Spain's Philippines in the event of a war,
- Became president after McKinley assassinated.
- Fought the war in Cuba with the "Rough Riders"
Queen of Hawaii before Hawaii was taken over by the U.S.
Described foreign exploits as many adventures.
De Lome Letter
- Spanish Ambassador
- Wrote letter saying McKinley is weak-minded and feeble, don't take U.S. gov't seriously.
- Got published in the newspaper.
- One of the reasons America fought for Cuba.
- Mysteriously blew up in Havana harbor and killed 260 sailors.
- US think blast caused by submarine mine, later confirmed in 1976 that it was an accident.
Proclaimed to the world that when US overthrows Spanish misrule, it would give Cubans their freedom.
Cuba given independence but if there is crisis in Cuba, U.S. can intervene. Also U.S. can make Guantanamo Bay.
Open Door Policy
Policy allowing multiple imperial powers to access China with none of them in control of the country.
- Means free Cuba.
- Alcoholic drink of Coke and Rum
- Created during Spanish-American war.
San Juan Hill
Most decisive battle in Spanish American War. Rough Rider's made it to the top with little opposition while black soldiers were slaughtered going up the front.
- Commander of the American Asiatic Squadron.
- After being told by Roosevelt, descends upon Phillipines when Spanish-American war starts.
- Attacks May 1st, 1898, 400 Spanish killed, 10 Spanish battleships sunk, not one American wounded.
- Going and finding markets and raw materials taking religion and culture with.
- Fueled by Social Darwinism.
- 1st president of the Philippines.
- Had instrumental role in Philippines revolution against Spain, and later against American occupation.
- Established Civilian government on the island of Puerto Rico.
- Established Puerto Rican citizenship.
- Founded by a small group of prominent Bostonians.
- Supported economic expansion but advocated free trade rather than political domination as the means to reach this goal.
- Opposed annexation of new territories.
- (Muck-rakers) raking up muck of society. Roosevelt branded the term
- Exposing of evil became a flourishing industry.
- Lincoln Steffens: unmasked the corrupt alliance between big business and municipal government.
Author of the Jungle. Advocated Socialism.
Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire
- Deadliest industrial disaster in the history of New York
- Led to legislation requiring improved factory safety standards.
- Muckraking Journalist
- Attempted to alleviate bad living conditions by exposing life of poor people to middle and upper classes.
Social Gospel Movement
Protestant Christian movement that sought to apply Christian ethics to social problems
- First Chief of the United States forest service.
- Split the republican party and became a top leader in the progressive party.