Biomedical Core

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  1. Cytokines are
    chemical signals from one cell that influences another.

    small protein hormones

    control cell growth and differentiation
  2. What are the types of cytokines?
    • Interferon
    • interleukins
    • Erythropoietin
    • Tumor necrosis factor
  3. Interleukins
    cytokines between white blood cells
  4. Interferon
    Anti-viral properties and stimulator of the immune system
  5. Tumor-necrosis factor (TNF)
    Produced by macrophages to encourage inflammation.
  6. Erythropoietin
    cytokine from the kidneys, increases the number and activity of recĀ  ell precursors in bone marrow.
  7. Antibodies (also called immunoglobulins (Ig) are produced in response
    to antigen through antibody-mediated immunity
  8. Antibodies have four peptide chains
    2 heavy chains and two light chains.

    Disulfide bonds link the chains together in a Y-shaped arrangement.
  9. Antibodies:

    Variable & Constant Regions. Describe both.
    Variable region (antigen-binding region)- Gives an antibody its specificity

    Constant region- similar for each class of antibody
  10. Antibodies:

    Antibody Functions

    Neutralizing antigen
    - Restricting virus binding to receptors

    - Toxin neutralization
  11. Antibodies:

    Antibody Functions

    Immobilizing bacteria
    Binding to cilia and flagella
  12. Antibodies:

    Antibody Functions

    Agglutinating and precipitating antigen
    Making what is soluble, insoluble
  13. Antibodies:

    Antibody Functions

    Activating complement
    Classical pathway
  14. Antibodies:

    Antibody Functions

    Enhancing phagocytosis
  15. Antibody class:

    General structure, location, and function

    Monomer, two antigen-binding sites, found in blood, lymph and intestines, 80% of the antibody in the blood, only class to cross the placenta, provide long-term immunity
  16. Antibody class:

    General structure, location, and function

    Pentamer, 10 antigen-binding sites, first to be secreted by plasma cells, great complement activator, short-lived
  17. Antibody class:

    General structure, location, and function

    Dimer, four antigen-binding sites, found in sweat, tears, saliva, mucus, breast milk, and gastrointestinal secretions, levels decrease during stress
  18. Antibody class:

    General structure, location, and function

    Monomer, two antigen-binding sites, less than 0.1% of antibody in the blood, located on mast cells in tissue
  19. Antibody class:

    General structure, location, and function

    Monomer, two antigen-binding sites, 0.2% of antibody in the blood, found as receptors for antigen on B-cells
  20. Acquired Adaptive Immunity
    Natural Immunity- immunity not gained through modern medicine.

    Artificial Immunity- gained through artificial means

    Active Immunity- The body responds to a pathogen (antigen) to make antibodies (long-term immunity)

    Passive Immunity- The body receives antibodies with no effort of its own (short-term immunity)
  21. Active immunity is long-term; passive is
  22. Acquiring Adaptive Immunity


    Naturally-acquired active immunity
    Immune products acquired following exposure to antigen
  23. Acquiring Adaptive Immunity


    Naturally-acquired passive immunity
    Transfer of antibody from non-medical source; IgG through the placenta, IgA through breast milk
  24. Acquiring Adaptive Immunity


    Artificially-acquired active immunity
    Immune products acquired through vaccination; antigens given that are immunogenic but not pathogenic.
  25. Acquiring Adaptive Immunity


    Artificially-acquired passive immunity
    Prepared injection of antibody
  26. The Complement System
    - A very powerful group of proteins that "complement" the action of the immune system

    - The main proteins are c1-c9

    - Activated by multiple pathways in a step-wise or cascading fashion
  27. The Complement System functions are
    - Encourages vasodilation and inflammation

    - Antigen opsonization

    - Destroys antigen
  28. Formation of Antibodies

    Primary antibody-mediated response
    -1st exposure

    - 5-7 day delay

    - Production of IgM followed by IgG
  29. Formation of Antibodies

    Secondary antibody-mediated response
    - Second and subsequent exposures

    - Very little delay due to memory T-helper and B cells

    -Production of IgM followed by a long-lasting population of IgG
  30. Self-recognition
    ability to recognize one's own cellular markers
  31. Self-tolerance
    The immune system must leave self-antigens alone
  32. Failure of self-recognition or self-tolerance results in
    autoimmune disease
  33. The Immune System and Aging

    Atrophy of the thymus gland
    - Decreased T-helper cell population- diminished mediation of the specific-immune response (decreased B-cell response)

    - Decreased number of T-cytotoxic cells- increased incidence of cancer
  34. The Immune System and Aging

    Increased numbers of

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Biomedical Core
2013-03-01 02:00:46

Objective 33-
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