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  1. Good sources of Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine)
    enriched cereals, meat, fish, poultry, starchy veggies
  2. What can result from toxicity from supplements while taking Vitamin B6 (2)
    -nerve damage

    -skin lesions
  3. What does Vitamin B6 help with?
    red blood cells and white blood cells
  4. Which form of folate is absorbed better? Folic acid or folate?
    • folic acid
    • *supplement
    • **gets absorbed 100%
  5. What is folate involved in? (2)
    DNA synthesis and amino acid metabolism
  6. What is folate critical for?
    cell division of very early embryos
  7. Good sources of folate
    -ready to eat cereals and enriched bread products
  8. Does the need for folate increased in a woman during pregnancy?
    yes, it increases dramatically
  9. What is folate required for during pregnancy?
    cell division and proper formation of the neural tube
  10. What three vitamins are grouped together often?
    b6, b12, and folate
  11. What is vitamin B12 required for? (3)
    -nerve functioning

    -homocysteine breakdown

    -helps formation of healthy blood
  12. What happens when a person is deficient in vitamin B12? (4)
    • -anemia
    • *pernicious anemia

    -low energy


    -shortness of breath
  13. (part of coenzymes) Vitamin B12
    -blood formation
  14. What is pantothenic acid required for?
    for building new fatty acids
  15. Is there toxicity from consuming pantothenic acid? What about deficiencies?
    No and deficiencies are rare
  16. (part of a coenzyme) Vitamin B6
    for more than 100 enzymes in amino acid metabolism
  17. Good sources of Pantothenic acid


    -egg yolk


    -oat cereals

    -tomato products
  18. What are deficiency symptoms of biotin? (3)
    -hair thinning

    -loss of hair color

    -red rash on face
  19. What can happen from defieciency of choline?
    fat accumulation in the liver
  20. What does CHoline accelerate the synthesis of?
    actylcholine, NT
  21. Which 8 are the B-complex vitamins?



    -Vitamin B6


    -Vitamin B12

    -Pantothenic Acid

  22. Where is excess of vitamin D stored?
    in liver and fat tissue
  23. Why is Vitamin D considered a hormone?
    it is synthesized in one location and acts in another location
  24. Vitamin D AND Sunlight
    Vitamin D can be synthesized by the body by exposure to UV light from the sun
  25. 4 functions of Vitamin D
    -required for calcium and phosphorous absorption

    -regulates blood calcium levels

    • -stimulates osteoclasts
    • *regeneraton of bones

    -necessary for bone calcification
  26. What is rickets disease? (2)
    -vitamin D deficiency in children

    -bowing of legs
  27. Is vitamin D common amount most foods?
    no, most is obtained from fortified foods
  28. What happens if consume too much vitamin D?
    • hypercalcemia
    • *high blood calcium
  29. Where is vitamin K stored?
    in the liver
  30. 2 types of vitamin K

  31. What is Phylloquinone?
    plant form of vitamin K
  32. What is menaquinone?
    form of vitamin K produced by bacteria in the large intestine
  33. 2 functions of vitamin K
    • -blood coagulation
    • *thicken blood

    • -Bone metabolism
    • *bone health
  34. Consuming too much AND Vitamin K
    no effects
  35. What can contribute to not consuming enough vitamin K?
    diseases that disturb abosrption of fat in small intestine
  36. What can contribute to not consuming enough vitamin D?
    -occurs with diseases that reduce intestinal abosption of fat
  37. What is CAncer?
    group of related diseases characterized by cells growing out of control
  38. 3 stages of Cancer


  39. 5 factors that increase cancer risk
    -tobacco use

    -sun exposure


    -environmental exposure

    -low level of physical activity
  40. How do antioxidants work? (3)
    -enhances immune system

    -inhibits growth of cancer cells

    -preventing oxidation damage to cells
  41. What are phytochemicals?
    naturally occurring chemicals in plants that may reduce the risk of cancer and other diseases.

    **phytoestrogens, lycopene, flavonoids, organosulphur
  42. 3 diseases associated with free radical damage

    -cardiovascular diseases

    -vision impairment
  43. How do antioxidants reduce risk of CVD? (3)
    -preventing oxidative damage to LDL

    • -acts as an anticoagulant to prevent blood clots
    • *vitamin E

    -reduces low-grade inflammation
  44. Which two vitamins are required for the breakdwon of amino acid homocysteine?
    -folate and vitamin B12

    ***low levels of these 2 causes an increase of homocysteine
  45. High Homocysteine levels are associated with...
    greater risk of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease
  46. WHat is the process of aging associated with? (2)
    -increased oxidative damage and;

    -reduced activity of antioxidant enzyme systems
  47. 2 age related diseases that can be prevented by taking enough antioxidants?
    -Macular degeneration

    - Cataracts
  48. Macular degeneration
    • deterioration of the macula
    • *the center of the retina
  49. Cataracts
    damaged regions of the lens of the eye causing cloudy vision
  50. 3 types of Anemia
    -iron-deficiency anemia

    -pernicious anemia

    -macrocytic anemia
  51. Pernicious anemia
    -occurs after the loss of specific cells of the stomach
  52. What is primary cause of Pernicious anemia?
    • vitamin b12 deficiency
    • *not consuming enough or loss of cells of stomach
  53. Whta causes Macrocytic anemia?
    severe folate deficiency
  54. What happens when person has Macrocytic anemia?
    enlarged red blood cells carrying insufficient hemoglobin
  55. (protective links) Vitamin C and...
  56. (protective links) Vitamin D and...
    colon cancer
  57. (protective links) Vitamin E and...
    complications of diabetes
  58. (protective links) Vitaimin K and...
  59. (protective links) Calcium and...
    high blood pressure
  60. (protective links) Chromium and...
    type 2 diabetes
  61. (protective links) Magnesium and...
    muscle wasting in older adults
  62. (protective links) Selenium and...
    certain types of cancer
Card Set:
2013-03-23 16:42:53

vitamins functions and diseases
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