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Good sources of Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine)
enriched cereals, meat, fish, poultry, starchy veggies
What can result from toxicity from supplements while taking Vitamin B6 (2)
What does Vitamin B6 help with?
red blood cells and white blood cells
Which form of folate is absorbed better? Folic acid or folate?
- folic acid
- **gets absorbed 100%
What is folate involved in? (2)
DNA synthesis and amino acid metabolism
What is folate critical for?
cell division of very early embryos
Good sources of folate
-ready to eat cereals and enriched bread products
Does the need for folate increased in a woman during pregnancy?
yes, it increases dramatically
What is folate required for during pregnancy?
cell division and proper formation of the neural tube
What three vitamins are grouped together often?
b6, b12, and folate
What is vitamin B12 required for? (3)
-helps formation of healthy blood
What happens when a person is deficient in vitamin B12? (4)
- *pernicious anemia
-shortness of breath
(part of coenzymes) Vitamin B12
What is pantothenic acid required for?
for building new fatty acids
Is there toxicity from consuming pantothenic acid? What about deficiencies?
No and deficiencies are rare
(part of a coenzyme) Vitamin B6
for more than 100 enzymes in amino acid metabolism
Good sources of Pantothenic acid
What are deficiency symptoms of biotin? (3)
-loss of hair color
-red rash on face
What can happen from defieciency of choline?
fat accumulation in the liver
What does CHoline accelerate the synthesis of?
Which 8 are the B-complex vitamins?
Where is excess of vitamin D stored?
in liver and fat tissue
Why is Vitamin D considered a hormone?
it is synthesized in one location and acts in another location
Vitamin D AND Sunlight
Vitamin D can be synthesized by the body by exposure to UV light from the sun
4 functions of Vitamin D
-required for calcium and phosphorous absorption
-regulates blood calcium levels
- -stimulates osteoclasts
- *regeneraton of bones
-necessary for bone calcification
What is rickets disease? (2)
-vitamin D deficiency in children
-bowing of legs
Is vitamin D common amount most foods?
no, most is obtained from fortified foods
What happens if consume too much vitamin D?
- *high blood calcium
Where is vitamin K stored?
in the liver
2 types of vitamin K
What is Phylloquinone?
plant form of vitamin K
What is menaquinone?
form of vitamin K produced by bacteria in the large intestine
2 functions of vitamin K
- -blood coagulation
- *thicken blood
- -Bone metabolism
- *bone health
Consuming too much AND Vitamin K
What can contribute to not consuming enough vitamin K?
diseases that disturb abosrption of fat in small intestine
What can contribute to not consuming enough vitamin D?
-occurs with diseases that reduce intestinal abosption of fat
What is CAncer?
group of related diseases characterized by cells growing out of control
3 stages of Cancer
5 factors that increase cancer risk
-low level of physical activity
How do antioxidants work? (3)
-enhances immune system
-inhibits growth of cancer cells
-preventing oxidation damage to cells
What are phytochemicals?
naturally occurring chemicals in plants that may reduce the risk of cancer and other diseases.
**phytoestrogens, lycopene, flavonoids, organosulphur
3 diseases associated with free radical damage
How do antioxidants reduce risk of CVD? (3)
-preventing oxidative damage to LDL
- -acts as an anticoagulant to prevent blood clots
- *vitamin E
-reduces low-grade inflammation
Which two vitamins are required for the breakdwon of amino acid homocysteine?
-folate and vitamin B12
***low levels of these 2 causes an increase of homocysteine
High Homocysteine levels are associated with...
greater risk of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease
WHat is the process of aging associated with? (2)
-increased oxidative damage and;
-reduced activity of antioxidant enzyme systems
2 age related diseases that can be prevented by taking enough antioxidants?
- deterioration of the macula
- *the center of the retina
damaged regions of the lens of the eye causing cloudy vision
3 types of Anemia
-occurs after the loss of specific cells of the stomach
What is primary cause of Pernicious anemia?
- vitamin b12 deficiency
- *not consuming enough or loss of cells of stomach
Whta causes Macrocytic anemia?
severe folate deficiency
What happens when person has Macrocytic anemia?
enlarged red blood cells carrying insufficient hemoglobin
(protective links) Vitamin C and...
(protective links) Vitamin D and...
(protective links) Vitamin E and...
complications of diabetes
(protective links) Vitaimin K and...
(protective links) Calcium and...
high blood pressure
(protective links) Chromium and...
type 2 diabetes
(protective links) Magnesium and...
muscle wasting in older adults
(protective links) Selenium and...
certain types of cancer