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an attempt to make sense of a real-world occurence; explanation is highly organzied statement based om systematic observations
people choose paths and behaviors
forces beyond people's control largely shape individual and social behavior
set of strongly held beliefs that are not subject to testing or critical review
strong beliefs that orginiate with a god or other spiritual entity
generalized statements about relationships, usually between two or more things
highly verified propositions; constistent and strong support when tested.
propositions who body of research is less compelling than laws.
theory-testing studies; beginning; uses past theorizations
theory-building studies; end point; lets date speak for itself.
who what where when why how
nonnumerical examinations and interpreatations of observations intended to reveal the object of study's essence or basic nature
numerical examinations and minpulations of observations intended to express the object of study in terms of accurate numberical equivalents.
provides general and logical def for terms used in a theory
provides specific steps that allow for the mearsurement of the theory's key terms
process by which researchers look for patterns and ways of organizing their observations or data in systematic ways
products of analysis
an individual proposition about or statement of the relationship between facts revealed by the data; has potential to go beyond the present case.
creation of knowledge for its own sake
attempts to address a spcific societal need
ties two variable mearsure of events together
anything that produces and effect
- quality accorded certain types of relationships; refers to an observed relationship between two measures
- relationship between two variables due to the influence of a third variable
occurs when the cariable under study and its cause are indistinguishable from each other; circular reasoning; use of words to explain the same thing twice.
ex post facto
after the fact
systematic method of classifying info according to clearly specified rules
a school of thought within a particular discipline; determinism & free will
4 goals of a theory
- and control
- statements embodied in the theory mesh with what we know about crime and criminals
- must have high levels of:
- offers to answer the questions
- "why is it"
- usually get the deepr aspect of the prob
goal theory as prediction
- shifts the emphasis
- prediction by nature is the fortelling or forecast of somthing
- if theoristy who knows most about issue does not get involved, then people with less knowledge define policy and agenda
- researchers view selves as value-free observers
3 criterion for causation to have occured
- 1. cause must precde the effect in time
- 2. researchers must demonstrate the presence of a correlation, usually through statitically research
- 3. absence of spurious link between the alleged cause and effect