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kinds of nouns?
- Common nouns refer to a general class of person, place or thing. For example: boy, forest and rock--these words refer to a category of noun, rather than to the special title of a specific noun.
- Proper nouns are names that refer specifically to the identity of certain special nouns. Proper nouns include the names of people (Jonathan), geographical names (Australia), brand names (Kleenex), institutional names (Bank of America) as well as titles of film, literature and artwork (Deer Hunter). Proper nouns are always capitalized.
- A collective noun refers to a group or collection of nouns with one word. Consider for example the first word in each of the following phrases: flock of geese, pack of cigarettes, crowd of people, and bundle of sticks.
- Abstract nouns refer to concepts that we objectify in thought and speech but have no material form. Examples of abstract nouns include hope, desire, fear and anguish. These nouns are unique, for we may treat them as objects in a sentence, yet they do not exist as objects in the physical realm, as do other nouns.
- Compound nouns are nouns that consist of two or more words combined. Some compound nouns are hyphenated (jack-in-the-box); others consist of separate words (board of trustees); and some compound nouns are two or more words combined without a hyphen (manslaughter).
- Count nouns are nouns that may be counted in numbers; for example, two eggs, three trucks, four birds. To express plurality, we may add an "s" to the end of the word; in some cases we must add "es": bushes, rushes, brushes.
- Mass nouns, also called non-count nouns, are nouns that may not be counted, such as milk, water and sunlight. These nouns may be quantified by certain constants (jar of milk, rays of sunlight), but we may not number them in the standard plural fashion (three milks, two sunlights).
Cases of nouns
Case defines the role of the noun in the sentence—as the subject or object or to show possession. Nouns in the subject and object role appear identical in form; nouns that show possession, however, are slightly different as they usually require an apostrophe.
- Personal pronouns refer to a specific person or thing. Their form changes to indicate a person, number, gender, or case.
- - Subjective personal pronouns are pronouns that act as the subject of a sentence. If you are learning English as a second language, remember that the subjective personal pronouns are I, you, she, he, it,we, you, and they.
- -Objective personal pronouns are pronouns that act as the object of a sentence. If you are learning English as a second language, remember that the objective personal pronouns are me, you, her, him, it,us, you, and them.
- -Possessive personal pronouns are pronouns that show possession. They define a person, or a number of people, who owns a particular object. If you are learning English as a second language, remember that the possessive personal pronouns are mine, yours, hers, his, its, ours, and theirs.
Demonstrative pronouns point to and identify a noun or a pronoun. This and these refer to things that are nearby in space or time, while that and those refer to things that are farther away in space or further away in time.
Interrogative pronouns are used to ask questions. The interrogative pronouns are who, whom, which, and what. If you are learning English as a second language, it is important to remember that who and whomare used to refer to people, while which is used to refer to things and animals. Who acts as the subject, while whom acts as the object.
Relative pronouns are used to link one phrase or clause to another phrase or clause. The relative pronouns are who, whom, that, and which. The compounds whoever, whomever, and whichever are also commonly used relative pronouns.
Indefinite pronouns refer to an identifiable, but not specified, person or thing. An indefinite pronoun conveys the idea of all, any, none, or some. If you are learning English as a second language, remember the following common indefinite pronouns: all, another, any, anybody, anyone, anything, each, everybody,everyone, everything, few, many, nobody, none, one, several, some, somebody, and someone.
Reflexive pronouns refer back to the subject of the clause or sentence. The reflexive pronouns used in writing English are myself, yourself, herself, himself, itself, ourselves, yourselves, and themselves.
Intensive pronouns are used to emphasize their antecedent. Intensive pronouns are identical in form to reflexive pronouns.
time and location in which a story takes place.