TERMS CHAP 6-8

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sandovalfj
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204260
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TERMS CHAP 6-8
Updated:
2013-03-17 11:14:09
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TERMS
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TERMS
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  1. ACIDOPHILE
    ORGANISMS THAT GROW BEST IN ACIDIC ENVIRONMENTS
  2. ALKALINOPHILE
    ORGANISMS THAT GROW BEST IN ALKALINE ENVIRONMENTS
  3. ANTAGONISM
    COMPETITIVE ENVIRONMENT BETWEEN FREE LIVING SPECIES
  4. ANTIBIOSIS
    THE PRODUCTION OF INHIBITORY COMPOUNDS DESIGNED TO DESTROY OR INHIBIT OTHER MICROBES IN THE SAME HABITAT
  5. BAROPHILE
    LIVE IN UNDER PRESSURE FROM A FEW - 1000 TIMES ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE  IE: DEEP SEA MICROBES
  6. CAPNOPHILE
    ORGANISMS THAT GROW BEST AT HIGHER CO2 LEVELS
  7. CARDINAL TEMPERATURE
    THE RANGE OF TEMPS FOR THE GROWTH OF A GIVEN MICROBIAL SPECIES
  8. COLONY
    A CLUSTER OF MACROMOLECULES THAT COME FROM A SINGLE CELL
  9. COMMENSALISM
    ONE PARTNER RECEIVES BENEFITS WHILE THE OTHER PARTNER IS NOT HARMED NOR BENEFITS FROM THE RELATIONSHIP
  10. DIFFUSION
    MOVEMENT OF MOLECULES DOWN THEIR CONCENTRATION GRADIENT
  11. FACULTATIVE
    CAN SWITCH FROM USING O2 TO USING CO2 FOR METABOLISM
  12. GENERATION
    INCREASES THE POPULATION BY A FACTOR OF 2
  13. GENERATION TIME
    THE TIME IT TAKES TO CREATE A NEW GENERATION
  14. HALOPHILE
    PREFER ENVIRONMENTS WITH HIGH CONCENTRATIONS OF SALT
  15. HYPERTONIC
    SOLUTE CONCENTRATION IS HIGHER INSIDE THE CELL THAN OUTSIDE THE CELL
  16. HYPOTONIC
    SOLUTE CONCENTRATION IS LOWER OUTSIDE THE CELL THAN INSIDE THE CELL
  17. INORGANIC
    SIMPLE MOLECULE MADE UP OF ATOMS OTHER THAN CARBON OR HYDROGEN
  18. ISOTONIC
    SOLUTE CONCENTRATIONS ARE THE SAME INSIDE AND OUTSIDE OF THE CELL
  19. MACRONUTRIENTS
    NEEDED IN LARGE QUANTITIES, PLAY MAJOR PART IN CELL STRUCTURE AND METABOLISM  C,H,O
  20. MAXIMUM TEMPERATURE
    HIGHEST TEMP A MICROBE CAN GROW AND METABOLIZE IN
  21. MICRONUTRIENTS
    "TRACE ELEMENTS" SMALLER AMOUNTS INVOLVED IN ENZYME FUNCTION AND MAINTENANCE OF PROTEIN STRUCTURE Mn, Zn, Ni
  22. MINIMUM TEMPERATURE
    LOWEST TEMP A MICROBE CAN GROW AND METABOLIZE IN
  23. MUTUALISM
    ORGANISMS LIVE IN OBLIGATORY RELATIONSHIP BUT BOTH BENEFIT FROM IT
  24. OBLIGATE
    HAS TO HAVE THE RIGHT CONDITIONS, NUTRIENTS AND HOST IN ORDER TO GROW
  25. OPTIMUM TEMPERATURE
    THE BEST TEMP FOR FASTEST GROWTH AND METABOLISM RATES
  26. ORGANIC
    SIMPLE ORGANIC MOLECULES THAT CONTAIN CARBON AND HYDROGEN AND ARE THE PRODUCTS OF LIVING THINGS
  27. OSMOPHILE
    LIVE IN ENVIRONMENTS WITH HIGH SOLUTE CONCENTRATION
  28. OSMOSIS
    THE DIFFUSION OF WATER THROUGH A SELECTIVELY, DIFFERENTIAL OR PERMEABLE MEMBRANE
  29. OSMOTIC PRESSURE
    PRESSURE CAUSED BY THE DIFFERENCE IN THE AMOUNTS OF SOLUTE BETWEEN SOLUTIONS THAT ARE SEPARATED BY A SEMI-PERMEABLE MEMBRANE
  30. PARASITE
    DERIVE NUTRIENTS FROM A LIVING HOST AND CAUSE HARM
  31. PARASITISM
    HOST PROVIDES HABITAT AND NUTRIENTS TO MICROBE AND IS HARMED IN SOME WAY BECAUSE OF IT
  32. PATHOGEN
    MICROORGANISM THAT CAN CAUSE DAMAGE TO TISSUES OR EVEN DEATH
  33. SYMBIOTIC
    RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN 2 ORGANISMS LIVING TOGETHER
  34. SYNERGISM
    RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN 2 ORGANISMS THAT IS MUTUALLY BENEFICIAL BUT NOT NECESSARY FOR SURVIVAL
  35. VIABLE NON-CULTURE
    MANY CELLS IN CULTURE IN DEATH PHASE STAY ALIVE BUT ARE DORMANT
  36. ANABOLISM
    THE PROCESS OF BUILDING LARGER MACROMOLECULES FROM SMALLER ONES USING ATP
  37. APOENZYME
    PROTEIN PORTION OF A CONJUGATED ENZYME
  38. CATABOLISM
    THE PROCESS OF BREAKING DOWN LARGER MACROMOLECULES INTO SMALLER ONES USING ATP
  39. CATALYST
    A SUBSTANCE THAT PROMOTES A CHEMICAL REACTION BY LOWERING THE ACTIVATION ENERGY WITHOUT ITSLEF BEING CHANGED IN THE END
  40. COENZYME
    ORGANIC COFACTOR MOLECULES
  41. COFACTOR
    INORGANIC ELEMENTS (METAL IONS)
  42. ENDERGONIC
    REACTIONS ARE DRIVEN FORWARD WITH THE ADDITION OF ENERGY
  43. ENZYME
    CATALYST THAT INCREASE CHEMICAL REACTIONS WITHOUT BEING CONSUMED OR DESTROYED
  44. EXERGONIC
    REACTIONS RELEASE ENERGY, MAKING IT AVAILABLE FOR CELLULAR WORK
  45. HOLOENZYME
    CONJUGATED ENZYMES MADE OF PROTEIN AND NON-PROTEIN MOLECULES
  46. METABOLISM
    ALL CHEMICAL REACTIONS AND PHYSICAL WORKING OF THE CELL
  47. OXIDIZED
    WHEN A COMPOUND LOSES ELECTRONS
  48. REDUCED
    WHEN A COMPOUND GAINS ELECTRONS
  49. SUBSTRATE
    REACTANT MOLECULES ACTED ON BY AN ENZYME, HAVE UNIQUE ACTIVE SITES ON THE ENZYMES THAT FIT ONLY THAT SUBSTRATE
  50. CHROMOSOME
    DISCRETE CELLULAR STRUCTURE COMPOSED OF A NEATLY PACKAGED DNA MOLECULE
  51. COMPETENT
    CELLS THAT ARE CAPABLE OF ACCEPTING GENETIC MATERIAL
  52. GENE
    THE FUNDAMENTAL UNIT OF HEREDITY RESPONSIBLE FOR A GIVEN TRAIT IN AN ORGANISM
  53. GENETICS
    THE STUDY OF INHERITANCE
  54. GENOME
    • SUM TOTAL OF GENETIC MATERIAL OF AN ORGANISM
    • MOSTLY CHROMOSOMES
  55. GENOTYPE
    • THE SUM OF ALL GENE TYPES
    • AN ORGANISM'S DISTINCTIVE GENETIC MAKEUP
  56. HEREDITY
    THE TRANSMISSION OF BIOLOGICAL PROPERTIES FROM PARETN TO OFFSPRING
  57. MUTAGEN
    • PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL AGENTS THAT DISRUPT DNA IE:
    • RADIATION: UV LIGHT, X-RAYS
    • CHEMICALS: NITROUS ACID
  58. MUTANT STRAIN
    • SHOWS VARIANCE IN ONE OR ¬†MORE OF THE FOLLOWING
    • MORPHOLOGY
    • NUTRITIONAL CHARACTERISTICS
    • GENETIC CONTROL MECHANISMS
    • RESISTANCE TO CHEMICALS
    • TEMPERATURE PREFERENCE
    • ANY TYPE OF ENZYMATIC FUNCTION
  59. MUTATION
    • ANY CHANGE TO THE NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE IN THE GENOME
    • MOSTLY NOTABLY WHEN IT LEADS TO A CHANGE IN PHENOTYPE
  60. PHENOTYPE
    • THE EXPRESSION OF CERTAIN TRAITS
    • (STRUCTURE OR FUNCTIONS)
    • ALL ORGANISMS CONTAIN MORE GENES IN THEIR GENOTYPE THAN ARE MANIFESTED IN THE PHENOTYPE AT ANY GIVEN TIME
  61. PLASMID
    • SMALL CIRCULAR PIECES OF DNA THAT CONTAIN THEIR OWN ORIGIN OF REPLICATION
    • CAN REPLICATE INDEPENDENTLY OF BACTERIAL CHROMOSOMES
    • FOUND IN MANY BACTERIA
    • CONTAIN GENES THAT CONFER USEFUL TRAITS, SUCH AS ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE
  62. POLYRIBOSOME
    • SINGLE mRNA IS LONG ENOUGH TO BE FED THROUGH MORE THAN ONE RIBOSOME
    • PERMITS SYNTHESIS OF HUNDREDS OF PROTEIN MOLECULES FROM THE SAME mRNA TRANSCRIPT
    • OCCURS ONLY IN PROKARYOTES, WHERE BOTH TRANSCRIPTION AND TRANSLATION OCCUR IN THE CYTOPLASM
  63. RECOMBINANT
    THE BACTERIUM THAT RECEIVES DNA FROM ANOTHER BACTERIUM
  64. RECOMBINATION
    AN EVENT IN WHICH ONE BACTERIUM DONATES DNA TO ANOTHER BACTERIUM
  65. REGULATORY GENES
    CONTROL GENE EXPRESSION
  66. SEMICONSERVATIVE REPLICATION
    CAREFUL ORCHESTRATION OF THE ACTIONS OF 30 DIFFERENT ENZYMES
  67. STRUCTURAL GENES
    • CODE FOR PROTEINS
    • CODE FOR RNA MACHINERY USED IN PROTEIN PRODUCTION
  68. TRAITS
    BIOLOGICAL PROPERTIES THAT ARE HANDED DOWN FROM PARENT TO OFFSPRING
  69. TRANSFECTION
    EUKARYOTIC PROCESS SIMILAR TO TRANSFORMATION, (ABSORBING GENETIC MATERIAL FROM THE ENVIRONMENT), USED TO FORM GENETICALLY MODIFIED YEASTS, PLANTS, AND MICE
  70. WILD TYPE STRAIN
    A MICROORGANISM THAT EXHIBITS A NATURAL, NONMUTATED CHARACTERISTICS

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