CONCEPTS CHAP 7

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sandovalfj
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204262
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CONCEPTS CHAP 7
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2013-03-11 17:51:07
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CONCEPTS
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  1. WHAT IS THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN METABOLISM, CATABOLISM AND ANABOLISM
    • CATABOLISM AND ANABOLISM ARE FORMS OF METABOLISM
    • CATABOLISM RELEASES ENERGY BY BREAKING DOWN LARGE MOLECULES
    • ANABOLISM USES ENERGY TO BUILD LARGE MOLECULES
  2. WHAT IS THE STRUCTURE OF ENZYMES
    • MOSTLY MADE OF PROTEIN
    • SOME NEED COFACTORS
    • SPECIFIC ACTIVE SITES FOR SPECIFIC SUBSTRATES
    • UNIQUE SHAPE,SPECIFICITY AND FUNCTION
    • LARGER THAN SUBSTRATES
  3. WHAT IS THE FUNCTION OF ENZYMES
    • ORGANIC CATALYSTS THAT SPEED UP RATE OF CELLULAR REACTIONS
    • ARE RE-USEABLE
    • HIGHLY EFFECTIVE AND EFFICIENT
  4. WHAT IS A CONSTITUTIVE ENZYME
    THE AMOUNT OF THE ENZYME INSIDE A CELL REMAINS THE SAME EVEN WHEN THE AMOUNT OF SUBSTRATE INCREASES
  5. WHAT IS A REGULATED ENZYME
    THE AMOUNT OF ENZYME IN THE CELL INCREASES OR DECREASES IN RESPONSE TO SUBSTRATE LEVELS
  6. WHAT IS COMPETITIVE INHIBITION
    • WHEN A BACTERIAL CELL PRODUCES A "MIMIC" MOLECULE SIMILAR TO NORMAL SUBSTRATE
    • "MIMIC" ATTACHES TO THE BINDING SITE BUT CAN'T BE ACTED UPON
    • PREVENTS SUBSTRATE FORM ATTACHING TO ACTIVE SITE
    • SHUTS DOWN THE ENZYME
  7. WHAT IS NON-COMPETITIVE INHIBITION
    • SUBSTRATE BINDS TO ENZYME
    • REACTION PRODUCES REGULATORY MOLECULE
    • REGULATORY MOLECULE BINDS TO REGULATORY SITE CHANGING THE THE ACTIVE SITE
    • SUBSTRATE CAN'T ATTCH BECAUSE IT NO LONGER FITS
  8. WHAT IS REPRESSION
    • GENETIC APPARATUS RESPONSIBLE FOR REPLACING ENZYME IS REPRESSED
    • RESPONSE TIME IS LONGER THAN FEEDBACK INHIBITION
  9. WHAT IS INDUCTION
    • SPECIFIC ENZYME SYNTHESIS ONLY HAPPENS WHEN 
    • SPECIFIC SUBSTRATES ARE PRESENT
  10. WHAT IS THE ROLE OF COFACTORS
    • METALS ACTIVATE ENZYMES
    • HELP BRING ACTIVE SITES AND SUBSTRATES CLOSE TOGETHER
    • PARTICIPATE DIRECTLY IN CHEMICAL REACTIONS WITH THE ENZYME-SUBSTRATE COMPLEX
  11. WHAT IS THE ROLE OF COENZYMES
    • TYPE OF COFACTOR
    • ORGANIC COMPOUND THAT WORK IN CONJUNCTION WITH AN APOENZYME
    • GENERALLY TRANSFER A CHEMICAL GROUP FORM SUBSTRATE TO SUBSTRATE
    • H ATOMS, ELECTRONS, CO2, AMINO GROUPS
    • MANY DERIVED FROM VITAMINS
  12. HOW ARE ENZYMES NAMED
    • ACCORDING TO CHARACTERISTICS
    • SITE OF ACTION
    • TYPE OF ACTION
    • SUBSTRATE
    • END IN -ASE
  13. DESCRIBE DENATURATION AND ITS EFFECTS ON ENZYME FUNCTION
    • WEAK BONDS THAT MAINTAIN THE SHAPE OF APOENZYMES ARE BROKEN
    • PREVENTS SUBSTRATE FROM ATTACHING TO ACTIVE SITE BECAUSE OF CHANGED CELL SHAPE
  14. HOW DO METABOLIC PATHWAYS WORK
    • OFTEN MULTI-STEP SERIES
    • EACH STEP CATALYZED BY AN ENZYME
    • PRODUCT OF 1 REACTION IS OFTEN THE SUBSTRATE FOR THE NEXT REACTION
    • MANY HAVE BRANCHES THAT PROVIDE ALTERNATE METHODS FOR NUTRIENT PROCESSING
    • DON'T STAND ALONE, INTERCONNECTED AND MERGE AT MANY SITES
  15. WHAT IS THE CYCLIC FORM OF METABOLIC PATHWAYS
    STARTING MOLECULE IS REGENERATED TO INITIATE ANOTHER TURN OF THE CYCLE
  16. STRUCTURE OF ATP
    NITROGEN BASE (ADENINE) LINKED TO A 5 CARBON SUGAR (RIBOSE) WITH A CHAIN OF 3 PHOSPHATE GROUPS BONDED TO THE RIBOSE
  17. FUNCTION OF ATP
    TO STORE AND RELEASE ENERGY
  18. WHAT IS THE REDOX REACTION
    • WHEN A COMPOUND RECEIVES AN ELECTRON
    • THEREFORE INCREASING ITS NEGATIVE CHARGE
  19. WHAT IS THE ROLE OF ELECTRON CARRIERS
    TO PASS ELECTRONS TO THE NEXT CARRIER DOWN THE LINE IN THE ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN
  20. WHAT IS DEHYDROGENATION
    THE REMOVAL OF HYDROGEN DURING A REDOX REACTION
  21. WHAT IS HYDROLYSIS
    THE BREAKING DOWN OF A MOLECULE BY THE ADDITION OF WATER
  22. DESCRIBE GLYCOLYSIS
    • 1 GLUCOSE -> USES 2 ATP
    • 2 PYRUVIC ACID
    • 2 NADH
    • 4 ATP
    • NET GAIN OF 2 ATP
  23. DESCRIBE THE INTERMEDIATE STEP
    • 2 PYRUVIC ACID ->
    • 2 ACETYL CoA
    • 2 NADH
    • 2 CO2
  24. DESCRIBE THE KREBS (CITRIC ACID) CYCLE
    • ACETYL CoA DONATES TO 2C TO OXALOACETATE TO FORM 6C CITRATE
    • 2 ACETYL CoA  X  3 NADH = 6 NADH
    •                            1 FADH = 3 FADH2
    •                            2 CO2 = 4 CO2
    •                            1 ATP = 2 ATP
  25. DESCRIBE THE ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN
    • 10 NADH X 3 ATP = 30 ATP
    • 2 FADH2 X 2 ATP = 4 ATP
  26. WHAT IS AEROBIC RESPIRATION
    • GLYCOLYSIS, INTERMEDIATE, KREBS CYCLE, AND THE ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN TO PRODUCE ENERGY
    • CONVERTS GLUCOSE TO CO2
    • USES OXYGEN AS THE FINAL HYDROGEN AND ELECTRON ACCEPTOR
  27. WHAT IS ANAEROBIC RESPIRATION
    • USED BY ANAEROBIC ORGANISMS AND THOSE WHO CAN METABOLIZE WITH OR WITHOUT OXYGEN
    • GLYCOLYSIS, KREBS CYCLE, AND ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN TO PRODUCE ENERGY
    • USES NO_3, SO_4^2-, CO_3^3- AS FINAL ELECTRON ACCEPTORS
  28. WHAT IS FERMENTATION
    • INCOMPLETE OXIDATION OF GLUCOSE
    • OXYGEN IS NOT REQUIRED
    • ORGANIC COMPOUNDS ARE FINAL ELECTRON ACCEPTORS
  29. WHAT IS THE PROCESS OF DECARBOXYLATION
    WHEN REMAINING CARBON COMPOUNDS ARE CONVERTED INTO KREBS CYCLE INTERMEDIATES
  30. WHAT IS DEAMINATION
    WHEN AMINO ACID GROUPS ARE REMOVED
  31. WHAT IS BETA OXIDATION
    • WHEN 2 CARBON UNITS ARE SUCCESSIVELY TRANSFERRED TO COENZYME A CREATING ACETYL CoA WHICH ENTERS THE KREBS CYCLE
    • YIELDS 50 ATP
  32. WHAT IS THE PROCESS OF LIPID HYDROLYSIS
    BREAKDOWN OF LIPIDS BY THE ADDITION OF HYDROGEN
  33. WHAT IS THE PROCESS OF NITRATE
    PAGE 182
  34. WHAT IS THE PROCESS OF NITRITE REDUCTION
    page 182
  35. WHAT IS A MOLECULE REDUCING POWER
  36. WHAT IS THE ROLE OF ATP SYNTHASE
    ENZYME THAT PROVIDES ENERGY FOR THE CELL TO USE THROUGH THE SYNTHESIS OF ATP
  37. WHAT IS THE PROCESS OF OXYDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION
    • THE COUPLING OF ATP SYNTHESIS TO ELECTRON TRANSPORT
    • EACH NADH -> 3 ATP
    • EACH FADH -> 2 ATP
  38. WHAT IS THE FUNCTION OF SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE
    BREAKS DOWN SUPEROXIDE INTO OXYGEN AND HYDROGEN PEROXIDE
  39. WHAT IS THE FUNCTION OF CATALASE
    BREAKS DOWN HYDROGEN PEROXIDE INTO OXYGEN AND AND H20
  40. WHAT IS THE FUNCTION OF PEROXIDASE
    PRODUCED BY AEROBES THAT DON'T HAVE CATALASE AND SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE IN ORDER TO HELP IN THE BREAKDOWN OF SUPEROXIDE
  41. WHATS THE DIFFERENCE IN FERMENTATION BETWEEN BACTERIA AND HUMANS
  42. WHAT IS EFFICIENCY OF THE CELL
  43. HOW DOES EFFICIENCY OF THE CELL RELATE TO AMPHIBOLISM

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