Anatomy week 8

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Anatomy week 8
2013-03-01 13:01:04

week 8
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  1. lymph:
    which is the fluid “lost” by the circulatory system
  2. lymphatics:
    capillaries and vessels that gather and carry the lymph, Controls body fluid, Destroys harmful microorganisms
  3. interstitial fluid:
     from tissue spaces Prevent edema
  4. lacteals:
    special lymphatics in small intestine
  5. chyle:
    milky lymph in lacteals, Develop immunities, Produce lymphocytes
  6. thoracic duct:
    drains into the left subclavian vein right lymphatic duct: drains into the right subclavian vein
  7. tonsils:
     Palatine, pharyngeal and lingual, Protect the nose and oral cavity
  8. thymus:
     lymphocyte production and maturation
  9. Peyer’s patches:
     found in walls of small intestine
  10. spleen:
     Largest mass of lymphatic tissue, Phagocytizes worn-out RBCs and platelets, Recycles hemoglobin, Produces lymphocytes and plasma cells, Stores blood for release during hemorrhage
  11. immunity:
     is the ability of body to resist, Infection from pathogens, Damage from foreign substances and harmful chemicals
  12. humoral immunity:
     B lymphocytes: produce antibodies, Fight circulating bacterial and viral infections
  13. cellular immunity:
     T lymphocytes, Come from thymus glands, Fight intracellular viruses, fungi, parasites, cancer
  14. antigen:
     any protein that is foreign to the  body
  15. antibodies:
    recognizes antigens, Y shaped molecule
  16. digestion:
     breakdown of food into smaller, usable forms, through this process, Ingestion, Peristalsis Digestion Absorption Defecation
  17. gastrointestinal tract:
     Mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine
  18. accessory organs:
    Teeth, tongue, salivary glands, liver, gallbladder, pancreas
  19. mouth:
     Taste, Mechanical breakdown of food, Chemical digestion of carbohydrates
  20. tongue:
     Skeletal muscle covered with mucous membrane, Lingual frenulum, Papillae, Taste buds
  21. salivary glands:
    Parotid, submandibular, sublingual
  22. saliva:
    Is 99.5% water, Has amylase which digests carbohydrates, Is buffered by bicarbonates and phosphates, Has mucin to lubricate food, Has lysozyme to destroy bacteria
  23. uvula:
    the dangly thing at the top of the back of the mouth, massaging the uvula causes the gag reflex, i.e. makes you hurl
  24. pharynx:
    Common passageway for food and air
  25. nasopharynx:
    swallowing (deglutition), Forms food bolus, a mass of chewed food Air passageways close
  26. oropharynx:
    Function: begins swallowing (deglutition), Forms food bolus, a mass of chewed food Air passageways close
  27. laryngopharynx:
    Function: begins swallowing (deglutition), Forms food bolus, a mass of chewed food Air passageways close
  28. chmye:
     a semisolid, semiliquid mass
  29. esophagus:
     Function, Secrete mucus, Transport food
  30. peristalsis:
     smooth muscle contractions push food
  31. lower esophageal sphincter:
     Controls passage of food into stomach
  32. stomach:
     chemical and mechanical breakdown of food – turns the bolus (bite-sized chewed mass, Latin for “ball”) of food into chyme, a semisolid, semiliquid mass
  33. pancreas:
    Acini: digestive enzymes, Islets of Langerhans: insulin and glucagon
  34. acini:
    digestive enzymes
  35. Islets of Langerhans:
    insulin and glucagon
  36. liver:
    Produces heparin, prothrombin, thrombin, Phagocytosis of bacteria and old blood cells, Stores excess carbohydrates, minerals, and vitamins Converts toxins into less harmful substances, Produces bile salts
  37. gallbladder:
    Pear-shaped sac, Located in depression on surface of liver, Stores and concentrates bile until needed, Enters duodenum through common bile duct
  38. small intestine:
    absorption of digested food
  39. duodenum:
     10 inches
  40. jejunum:
     8 feet
  41. ileum:
    12 feet
  42. mucosa:
    mucous membrane attached to thin layer of visceral muscle
  43. submucosa:
     loose connective tissue
  44. muscularis:
    skeletal or smooth muscle
  45. serosa:
    serous membrane made of connective and epithelial tissue
  46. plicae:
     folds in the small intestine
  47. villi:
     site of nutrient absorption (singular villus)
  48. microvilli:
    increase absorption area even more Each villus contains arteriole, venule, capillary network and lacteal
  49. large intestine:
    Reabsorption of water, Manufacture and absorption of vitamins, Formation and expulsion of feces
  50. cecum: :
     pouchlike area
  51. colon:
    ascending, transverse, descending, Pouches called haustrae (singular haustra)
  52. rectum:
    terminates at the anus
  53. anus:
    controlled by internal and external sphincter
  54. haustral churning:
    about every 25 minutes
  55. peristalsis:  
    3 to 12 contractions per minute
  56. mass peristalsis:
    (aka “a bowel movement”, “a dookie”, … insert your euphemism for excrement here) – 2-3 times per day
  57. feces:
     semisolid mass originating from chime, Contain water, inorganic salts, epithelial cells, Escherichia coli