Network+ (Chapter 12 Definitions)

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  1. Client
    A computer program that uses the services of another computer program;software that extracts information from a server.  Your autodial phone is a client, and the phone company is its server.  Also, a machine that accesses shared resources on a server.
  2. Server
    A computer that shares its resources, such as printers and files, with other computers on the network.  An example of this is a Network File System Server that shares its disk space with a workstation that has no disk drive of its own.
  3. Virtual Private Network (VPN)
    A network configuration that enables a remote user to access a private network via the Internet.  VPNs employ an encryption methodology called tunneling, which protects the data from interception.
  4. Point to Point Tunneling Protocol (PPTP)
    A protocol that works with PPP to provide a secure data link between computers using encryption.
  5. Routing and Remote Access Service (RRAS)
    A special remote access server program., originally only available on Windows Server, on which PPTP endpoint is placed in Microsoft Networks.
  6. Client-to-site
    A type of VPN connection where a single computer logs into a remote network and becomes, for all intents and purposes, a member of that network.
  7. Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol (L2TP)
    A VPN protocol developed by Cisco that can be run on almost any connection imaginable.  LT2P has no authentication or encryption, but uses IPsec for all its security needs.
  8. Site-to-Site
    A type of VPN connection using two Cisco VPN concentrators to connect two separate LANs permanently.
  9. SSL VPN
    A type of VPN that uses SSL encryption.  Clients connect to the VPN server using a standard Web browers, with the traffic secured using SSL.  The two most common types of SSL VPNs are SSL portal VPNs and SSL tunnel VPNs.
  10. Broadcast Domain
    A network of computers that will hear each other's broadcast.  The older term collision domain is the same, but rarely used today.
  11. Virtual Local Area Network (VLAN)
    A LAN, using VLAN-capable switches, places some (or any of the more expensive VLANs) systems on viritual broadcast domains.
  12. Trunking
    The process of transferring VLAN data between two or more switches.
  13. Trunk Port
    A port on a switch configured to carry all data, regardless of VLAN number, between all switches in a LAN.
  14. Virtual Trunk Protocol (VTP)
    A propriety Cisco protocol to automate the updating of multiple VLAN switches.
  15. Load Balancing
    The process of taking several servers and making them look like a single server.
  16. Content Switch
    Advanced networking device that works at least at Layer 7 (Application layer) and hides servers behind a single IP.
  17. Quality of Service (QoS)
    Policies that control how much bandwidth a protocol, PC, user, VLAN, or IP address may use.
  18. Traffic Shaping
    Controlling the flow of packets into or out of the network according to the type of packet or other rules.
  19. Firewall
    A device that restricts traffic between a local network and the Internet based on port number or IP address.
  20. Intrusion Detection System (IDS)/Intrusion Prevention System
    An application (often running on a dedicated IDS box) that inspects incoming packets, looking for active intrusions.  The difference between an IDS and an IPS is that an IPS can react to an attack.
  21. Port Mirroring
    The capability of many advanced switches to mirror data from any or all physical ports on a switch to a single physical port.  Useful for any type of situation where an administrator needs to inspect packets coming to or from certain computers.
  22. Proxy Server
    A device that fetches Internet resources for a client without exposing that client directly to the Internet.  Most proxy servers accept requests for HTTP, FTP, POP3, and SMTP resources.  The proxy server often caches, or stores a copy of the requested resource for later use.
  23. Static VLAN
    bases on ports
  24. Dynamic VLAN
    based on MAC addresses
  25. 802.1Q
    Standard that is almost universal for VLAN trunking.
  26. 802.1X
    A port-authentication network access control mechanism for networks.
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Network+ (Chapter 12 Definitions)

Advanced Networking Devices
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