Med Term ch 6

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Med Term ch 6
2013-03-07 18:31:29
Med Term blood lymph lymphatic circulatory system

Med Term ch 6 blood lymph lymphatic circulatory system
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  1. blast/o  ( or suffix "-blast" )
    germ, or bud
  2. chrom/o , chromat/o
  3. chyl/o

    mmm, juice
  4. cyt/o
  5. hem/o , hemat/o
  6. immun/o
  7. lymp/o
    clear fluid
  8. morph/o
  9. myel/o
    bone marrow or spinal cord
  10. phag/o
    eat, or swallow
  11. plas/o
  12. reticul/o
    a net
  13. splen/o
  14. throm/o
  15. thym/o
    thymus gland
  16. plasma
    • liquid portion of blood and lymph.  Contains:
    • water
    • proteins
    • cellular components ( leukocytes, erythrocytes, platelets )
  17. serum
    liquid portion of blood that remains after clotting
  18. erythrocyte
    red blood cell - transports oxygen and carbon dioxide
  19. hemoglobin
    protein-iron compound in erythrocytes that transports oxygen and carbon dioxide
  20. leukocyte
    • white blood cell
    • proetects body from harmful invading substances
  21. granulocytes
    a group of leukocytes containing granules in their cytoplasm
  22. neutrophil
    • a granular leukocyte - named for the neutral stain of its granules.  The fight off infection by swallowing bacteria
    • swallowing bacteria = "phagocytosis"
    • neutro = neither
    • phil = attraction for
    • neutrophil attracts no stain color
  23. polymorphonuclear (PMN) leukocyte
    • another term for neutrophil, referring to the many segments in its nucleus
    • lobed nucleus
  24. eosinophil
    • a granular leukocyte - named for the rose-colored stain of its granules.  They increase in allergic and some infectious reactions.
    • eos = rose
    • phil = attraction for
    • eosinophil attracts rose color stain
  25. basophil
    • granular leukocyte - named for the dark stain of its granules.  Brings anticoagulant substances to inflamed tissues
    • baso = base
    • phil = attraction for
    • basophil = attracts dark stains  (base and dark are the same here I guess?)
  26. agranulocytes
    a group of leukocytes that do not have granules in their nuclei
  27. lymphocyte
    • an agranulytic ( no granules ) leukocyte that is active in the process of immunity.  The three categories of lymphycotes are:
    • T cells: thymus dependent
    • B cells: bone marrow derived
    • NK cells: natural killer cells
  28. monocyte
    a granulolytic leukocyte that performs phagocytosis to fight infection
  29. platelets
    thromobcytes - cell fragments in the blood that are essential for blood clotting
  30. thymus
    primary gland of lymphatic system, locatged withing the mediastinum, produces T cells
  31. spleen
    • organ between stomach and diaphragm -
    • filters out aging blood cells
    • removes cellular debris by phagocytosis
    • provides an environment to lymphocytes to initiate immune responses
  32. lymph
    fluid that is circulated through the lymph vessels
  33. lymph capillaries
    microscopic vessels that draw lymph from tissues to the lymph vessels
  34. lymph vessels
    vessels that receive lymph from lymph capillaries and circulate it to the lymph nodes
  35. lacteals
    specialized lymph vessels in the small intestine that absorb fat into the bloodstream
  36. chyle
    white or pale yellow substance in lymph that contains fatty substances absorbed by the lacteals
  37. lymph nodes
    • many small oval structures that filter lymph from the lymph vessels
    • major locations - cervical (neck), axillary (armpit), inguinal (groin)
  38. lymph ducts
    collecting channels that carry lymph from the lymph nodes to the veins
  39. right lymphatic duct
    receives lymph from the right upper part of the body
  40. thoracic duct
    receives lymp from the left side of the head, neck, chest, abdomen, left arm, and lower extremeties ( pretty much everything else that the right lymphatic duct doesn't handle )
  41. immunity
    process of disease protection induced by exposure to an antigen
  42. antigen
    substance that, when introduced into the body, causes the formation of antibodies against it
  43. antibody
    substances produced by the body that destroy or inactivate and antigen that has entered the body
  44. active immunity
    • long lasting immunity that results from stimulating the body to produce its own antibodies.  Developed either:
    • naturally - in response to an infection or,
    • artificially - in response to the administration of a vaccine
  45. passive immunity
    • short lasting immunity that results form the foreign antibodies that are conveyed either:
    • naturally - through placenta to a fetus or,
    • artificially - by injection of a serum containing the antibodies
  46. microcytosis
    presence of small red blood cells
  47. macrocytosis
    presence of large red blood cells
  48. anisocytosis
    • presence of red blood cells of unequal size
    • an = not
    • iso = equal
  49. poikilocytosis
    • presence of large, irregularly shaped  red blood cells
    • poikilo = irregular
  50. reticulosis
    an increased number of immature erythrocytes in the blood
  51. lymphocytopenia
    an abnormally reduced number of lymphocytes
  52. neutorpenia
    a decreased number of  neutrophils
  53. pancytopenia
    • an abnormally reduced number of all cellular components in the blood
    • pan = all
  54. thrombocytopenia
    an abnormally decreased number of platelets in the blood, impairing the clotting process
  55. hemolysis
    breakdown of red blood cells
  56. immunocompromised
    • impaired immunologic defenses caused by an immunodeficiency disorder or by therapy with immunosuppressive agents
    • immune system is compromised
  57. lymphadenopathy
    • enlarged ( diseased ) lymph nodes
    • pathy = disease
    • aden/o = gland
  58. splenomegaly
    enlargement of spleen
  59. acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)
    • syndrome caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), thta renders immune cells ineffective, allowing opportunistic infections, malignancies, and neurologic diseases to develop
    • transmitted sexually or through contaminated blood
  60. anemia
    condition of reduced numbers of red blood cells, hemoglobin, or packed red cells in the blood.  Results in a diminished ability or red blood cells to transport oxygen to the tissues
  61. aplastic anemia
    • normocytic-normochromic type of anemia characterized by the failure of bone marrow to produce red blood cells
    • bone marrow does not make enough RBCs
  62. iron deficiency anemia
    • microcytic-hypochromic type of anemia characterized by a lack of iron that affects the production of hemoglobin and is characterized by small red blood cells containing low amounts of hemoglobin
    • RBCs are small and don't have enough hemoglobin
  63. pernicious anemia
    • macrocytic-normochromic type of anemia characterized by an inadequate supply of vitamin B12, causes red blood cells to become large, varied in shape and reduced in number
    • Not enough B12 in system - RBCs are large, mishapen, and few
  64. autoimmune disease
    • any disorder characterized by abnormal function of the immune system that causes the body to produce antibodies against itself, resulting in tissue destruction or loss of function
    • rheumatoid arthritis and lupus are examples
  65. erythroblastosis fetalis
    disorder that results from the incompatibility of a fetus with Rh-positive blood and a mother with Rh-negative blood.  Causes red blood cells to be destroyed in fetus.  Blood transfusion is necessary to save fetus.
  66. Rh factor
    presence or lack of antigens on the surface of red blood cells, which causes a reaction between Rh-positive blood and Rh-negative blood
  67. Rh positive
    presence of antigens on RBCs
  68. Rh negative
    absence of antigens on RBCs
  69. hemochromatosis
    • hereditary disorder with an excessive buildup of iron deposits in the body
    • This disease can cause a change in color of the skin.  chromo = color
  70. hemophilia
    group of hereditary bleeding disorders caused by a defect in clotting factors necessary for the coagulation of blood
  71. leukemia
    chronic or acute malignant (cancerous) disease of the blood-forming organs, characterized by abnormal leukocytes in the blood and bone marrow
  72. myelodysplasia
    • disorder within the bone marrow characterized by a proliferation of abnormal stem cells (cells that give rise to different types of blood cells
    • usually develops into a specific type of leukemia
  73. lymphoma
    any neoplastic disorder of lymph tissue, usually malignant, as in Hodgkin disease
  74. metastasis
    process by which cancer cells are spread by blood or lymph circulation to a distant organ.  Plural form "metastases"indicates spreading to two or more distant sites
  75. mononucleosis
    condition caused by the Epstein-Barr virus, and characterized by an increase in mononuclear cells (monocytes and lymphocytes) in the blood along with enlarged lymph nodes (lymphadenopathay), fatigue, and sore throat (pharyngitis)
  76. polycythemia
    increased number of erythrocytes and hemoglobin in the blood
  77. septicemia
    systemic disease caused by infection with microorganisms and other toxins in circulating blood
  78. phlebotomy / venipuncture
    incision into or puncture of a vein to withdraw blood for testing
  79. blood chemistry
    test of the fluid portion of blood to measure the amounts of its chemical constituents ( glucose, cholesterol, etc.)
  80. blood chemistry panels
    • specialized batteries of automated blood chemistry tests performed on a single sample of blood
    • used as a general screen for disease or to target specific organs or conditions
    • for example: metabolic panel, lipid panel, arthritis panel
  81. basic metabolic panel (BMP)
    battery of tests used as a general screen for disease, includes tests for calcium, carbon dioxide, chloride, creatnine, glucose, potassium, sodium, blood urea nitrogen (BUN)
  82. comprehensive metabolic panel (CMP)
    • tests performed in addition to the basic panel for expanded screening
    • albumin, bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase, protein, alanine aminotrasferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST)
  83. blood culture
    • test to determine if infection is present in the bloodstream by isolating a specimen of blood in an environment that encourages the growth of microorganisms
    • specimen is observed and organisms that grow are identified
  84. CD4 cell count
    • measure of the number of CD4 cells (CD4 cells are a subset of T lymphocytes) in the blood
    • used in monitoring the cousrse of HIV and in timing the treatment of AIDS
    • normal adult range - 60 - 1500 cells in a given volume of blood
  85. erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR)
    timed test that measures the rate at which red blood cells settle through a volume of plasma
  86. partial thromboplastin time (PTT)
    test to determine coagulation defects such as platelet disorders
  87. thromboplastin
    substance present in tissues, platelets, and leukocytes that is necessary for coagulation
  88. prothrombin time (PT)
    test to measure activity of prothrombin in the blood

    Stop!  prothrombin time!
  89. prothrombin
    protein substances in the blood that is essential to the clotting process
  90. complete blood count (CBC)
    • common laboratory blood test performed as a screen of general health or for diagnostic purposes and typically includes the component tests that follow
    • test results are usually reported along with nomal values so that the clinician can interpret the results based on the instrumentation used by the laboratory
    • normal ranges also may vary depending of the region and climate.
  91. white blood count (WBC)
    a count of the number of white blood cells in a given volume of blood obtained via manual or automated laboratory methods
  92. red blood count (RBC)
    a count of the number of red blood cells in a given volume of blood obtained via manual or automated laboratory methods
  93. hemoglobin (HGB) or Hgb)
    a test to determine the blood level of hemoblobin (expressed in grams)
  94. hematocrit (HCT) or (Hct)
    measurement of the percentage of packed red blood cells in a given volume of blood
  95. blood indices
    calculations of TBC, HGB, and HCT results to determine the average size, hemoglobin concentration, and content of red blood cells to classify an anemia
  96. mean corpuscular ( cell ) volume (MCV)
    calculation of the volume(size) of individual red blood cells using HCT and RBC results: MCV = HCT/RBC
  97. mean corpuscular (cell) hemoglobin concentration (MCHCH)
    • calculation of the average hemoglobin concentration in each red blood cell using HGB and HCT results
    • MCHC = HGB/HCT
  98. differeential count
    • determination of the number of each type of white blood cell in a stained blood smear
    • each type is counted and reported as a percentage of the total examined

    • type of leukocyte        normal range
    • lymphocytes          25-33%
    • monocytes            3 - 7%
    • neutrophils            54 - 75%
    • eosinophils            1 - 3%
    • basophils               0 - 1%
  99. red cell morphology
    a recording of the condition, size, and shape of red blood cells in the background of a smeared slide that is used for a differential count
  100. platelet cound (PLT)
    • calculation of the number of thrombocytes in the blood
    • normal adult range is 150,000 - 450,000 platelets in a given volume of blood
  101. bone marrow aspiration
    needle aspiration of bone marrow tissue for pathologic examination
  102. bone marrow biopsy
    pathologic examination of bone marrow tissue
  103. lymphangiogram
    x-ray image of a lymph node or vessel obtained after injection of a contrast medium
  104. computed tomography (CT)
    full body x-ray CT images which are used to detect tumors and cancers such as lymphoma
  105. positron-emission tomography (PET)
    • scanning technique combining nuclear medicine and computed tomography technology to produce images of anatomy and metabolic function within the body
    • useful in determinig the recurrence of cancers or to measure response to therapy
    • commonly used in evaluating lymphoma
  106. bone marrow transplant
    transplantation of healthy bone marrow from a compatible donor to a diseased recipient to stimulate blood cell production
  107. lymphandectomy
    removal of a lymph node
  108. lymphadenotomy
    incision into a lymph node
  109. lymph node dissection
    removal of possible cancer-carrying lymph nodes for pathologic examination
  110. splenectomy
    removal of the spleen
  111. thymectomy
    removal of the thymus gland
  112. blood transfusion
    introduction of blood products into the circulation of a recipient whose blood volume is reduced or deficient in some manner
  113. autologous blood
    • blood donated by and stored for a patient for future personal use
    • patient has own blood taken and stored for later use
  114. homologous blood
    • blood voluntarily donated by any person for a transfusion to a compatible recipient
    • blood donated by one person for use in another person
  115. blood component therapy
    transfusion of a specific blood component such as packed red blood cells, platelets, or plasma
  116. cross matching
    method of matching a donor's blood to the recipient by mixing a sample in a test tube to determine compatibility
  117. chemotherapy
    treatment of malignancies, infections, and other diseases with chemical agents to destroy selected cells or to impair their ability to reproduce
  118. immunotherapy
    use of biologic agents to prevent or treat disease by stimulating the body's own defense  mechanisms, as seen in the treatment of AIDS, cancer, or allergy
  119. plasmaphereses
    removal of plasma from the body with separation and extraction of specific elements ( like platelets ) followed by reinfusion