PSY 115: Ch. 4

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PSY 115: Ch. 4
2013-03-01 16:17:00
psy 115 scsu chapter four operant conditioning classical reinforcement punishment animal training

Operant and Classical Conditioning.
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  1. Positive Reinforcement
    Something added increases behavior.
  2. Negative Reinforcement
    Something removed increases behavior.
  3. Positive Punishment
    Something added decreases behavior.
  4. Negative Punishment
    Something removed decreases behavior.
  5. Primary Reinforcer
    Something that the organism naturally enjoys (sex, eating food, etc).
  6. Secondary Reinforcer
    Something the animal must learn to like (receiving a paycheck, etc).
  7. Fixed Interval
    Reward occurs after a fixed amount of time (receiving a paycheck every two weeks, etc).
  8. Variable Interval
    Reinforcers are distributed over a varing amount of time.
  9. Fixed Ratio
    If a behavior is performed "X" amount of times, there will be one reinforcement on the "Xth" performance (Aerie-- Buy 5 bras, get the 6th free).
  10. Variable Ratio
    Reinforcers are distributed based on the average number of correct behaviors. A ratio of 1:3 means that, on average, 1 in every 3 behaviors is reinforced.
  11. Extinction
    If a reinforcer fails to occur after a behavior that has been reinforced in the past, the behavior might extinguish.
  12. Extinction Bursts
    An animal may repeat a behavior over and over again in a burst of activity when a behavior that has been strongly reinforced in the past.
  13. UCS // Unconditional Stimulus
    "Unlearned". Noun. A thing that naturally and automatically triggers a response.
  14. UCR // Unconditional Response
    "Unlearned". Verb. Response that occurs naturally in response to the unconditional stimulus.
  15. CS // Conditional Stimulus
    "Learned". Noun. A previously neutral stimulus that, after becoming associated with the unconditional stimulus, eventually comes to trigger a conditioned response. (Quack & BB gun are unrelated & quack sound was neutral. Now, the quack sound makes the boy duck and cover. Quack = Conditional Stimulus.)
  16. CR // Conditional Response
    "Learned". Verb. Learned reaction to the previously neutral stimulus. (Duck and cover is the reaction to the previously neutral stimulus, the quack.)