Card Set Information
what's the technical name for the soft spot on a baby's head, and how long does it last?
should close by 12-18 months, but can stay open until 3-5 years (though that seems abnormal)
it's trouble if it's closed at 6 months
apgar stands for what?
appearance (skin color)
grimace (reflex irritability)
activity (muscle tone)
8-9 out of 10
if a baby is born at 28-32 weeks there's a big risk of neurologic complications. Name 3 types
intraventricular hemorrhage --> spastic hemiparesis, quadriparesis, cog defects
3 types of respiratory complications seen in premature babies
respiratory distress syndrome (RDS)
bronchpumlonary dysplasia (BPD)
describe the apnea seen in premature babies
lack of breathing for > 20 sec 2/2 system immaturity... may indicate systemic medical problems
happens in as many as 90% of infants who weigh less than 1000g at birth
rel between apnea and SIDS?
what's an easy tx for apnea
caffein minimizes frequency of apnea episodes
what is respiratory distress syndrome? - overview from a website
breathing disorder, seen in infants > 6 weeks premature / earlier than 28 weeks
develops in first 24 hrs after birth
it's due to a lack of surfactant, which would help keep the lungs open
baby has to work harder to get oxygen if lungs are collapsed, and parts of body may get ischemic
RDS could be an early phase of bronchopulm displasia (BPD), and some tx for RDS cause BPD
(respiratory distress syndrome)
hyaline membrane disease
seen in premies younger than 34 weeks -- the numbers seem to vary, but I guess younger than 34 is a risk, younger than 32 it's pretty likely, younger than 28 it's guaranteed
what does surfactant do?
decreases surface tension of smaller airways so alveoli don't collapse
when does the surfactant apparatus get made?
starts at 28 weeks
fully formed at 32
3 treatments for RDS/hyaline membrane disease
in some cases, mechanical ventilation
what babies get BPD (bronchopulmonary disorder)?
babies that required supplemental 2 a/o mechanical ventilation
babies born more than 10 weeks early
wt less than 2 lbs (about 1,000 grams)
babies with hx of RDS
what happens in BPD?
walls of lung thicken, making O2/CO2 exchange difficult ... actually, I can't tell if this happens because kid has BPD, or if this is one of the things that leads to BPD
2 consequences of BPD
limited physical activity tolerance, which'll lead to dev delays
chronic upper respiratory problems / chronic lung disease
cardiac complications seen in premature babies
patent ductus arteriosus
how much tummy time does a baby need? simple answer, and more detailed answer
81 minutes per day
doesn't have to be consecutive
begin placing infant in prone when a few days old (and awake)
start w a few min/day, work up to an hour/day by end of 3rd month
place kid prone after each diaper change and each bath
play in prone
roll up a towle and palce the infant prone over it
first leading cause of death in infants in first year of life?
sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS)
risk factors for SIDS
sleeping on a soft surface
smoking during pregnancy
second hand smoke
late or no prenatal care
young maternal age
premature birth or low birth weight
not getting tummy time can lead to...?
gross motor delay
and also contributes to SIDS
abnormal shape of head
plagiocephaly can be due to abnorlal forces on the skull before or after birth. 4 ways to happen pre-birth
when baby descends into pelvis
abnormally shaped uterus
fetus in an odd position
twins, triplets (it's crowded)
resolution of plagiocephaly if it's due to abnormal forces on the skull pre-birth
usually goes to normal shape in about 6 weeks after birth
however, localized occiput flattening at birth might also be a precursor to deformational plagiocephaly
risk factors for plagiocephaly (the pre-birth kind)
assisted vaginal delivery (tongs)
prolonged labor (baby's stuck in canal longer)
unusual birth position
multiparity (more babies inside)
what causes deformational plagiocephaly?
pressure on occiput of growing skull causing the occiput to flatten
where is plagiocephaly most common?
flattening on right side > left
boys more than girls
name for plagiocephaly if it hits the face?
craniofacial asymmetries (esp in eyes)
premature closure/ossification of sutures in skull
(this is different from plagiocephaly and craniofacial asymmetries)
how does prematurity raise the risk of plagiocephaly?
in the last 10 weeks of pregnancy the cranial bones become stronger and harder
in NICU on a respirator their heads are maintained in a fixed position
developmental delay rel to plagiocephaly
chicken and the egg
can torticollis cause plagiocephally