Psychology

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Shelby21
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204324
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Psychology
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2013-03-01 19:27:22
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chapters 2,3,4,and 5.
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  1. The brain consists of approximately 100 billion nerve cells called?
    neurons
  2. Neurons are made up of dendrites, a soma, and...
    axons
  3. The part of the neuron which collects and combines info. is called the
    soma
  4. The part of the neuron that specializes in receiving messages from other neurons is the
    dendrite
  5. The conduction of a nerve impulse down the axon is called a
    action potential
  6. The tiny gaps separating neurons from one another and across which info. must be transmitted are known as
    synapses
  7. The chemicals that are released at an axon terminal and can either excite or inhibit other neurons are called
    neurotransmitters
  8. The fatty tissue that gives many nerves a whitish color is called
    myelin
  9. The central nervous system is composed of the
    brain and spinal cord
  10. The peripheral nervous system is composed of the
    somatic and autonomatic
  11. Both surgical ablation and _______ remove brain tissue.
    deep lesioning
  12. An EEG records ________.
    electrical impulses from the brain
  13. ________ measures the structure of the brain by utilizing a series of x-rays.
    CT scan
  14. The MRI scan obtains an image of the brain by using
    magnetic fields
  15. A PET scan detects ______ emitted by brain cells.
    positrons
  16. Humans are superior to all other animals in ________.
    intelligence
  17. The ______ is the highest functioning and largest brain area found in humans.
    cerebrum
  18. The cerebral cortex is composed of two sides or ________.
    hemispheres
  19. The corpus callosum is a thick band of fibers that connect _______.
    the two cerebral hemispheres
  20. Bodily sensations such as touch, temperature, and pressure register in which brain area?
    the parietal lobes
  21. Aphasia is a
    language disturbance resulting from brain damage.
  22. Damage to Broca's area causes great difficulty in
    speaking or writing
  23. Severe damage to the ______ would likely result in death.
    medulla
  24. Damage to the cerebellum would most likely result in
    loss of muscular coordination
  25. T or F
    Acetycholine, epinephrine, dopamine, and histamine are neurotransmitters.
    true
  26. T or F
    The main divisions of the human nervous system are the autonomic nervous system and the central nervous system.
    False
  27. T or F
    There are 12 pairs of cranial nerves that leave the brain directly.
    True
  28. T or F
    In humans, the right side of the brain mainly controls the left side of the body.
    True
  29. T or F 
    The cellebellum stores skill memories such as riding a bike.
    True
  30. T or F
    After watching violent scenes, men have lower levels of testosterone.
    False
  31. T or F
    Enlarged hands, feet, and facial bones may be the result of acromegaly.
    True
  32. Tor F
    The thyroid gland is considered the "master gland" and regulates the functioning of other glands.
    False  

    it is the pituitary gland.
  33. T or F
    Melatonin is released by the thyroid gland.
    False
  34. T or F
    The hippocampus is the part of the brain that stores lasting verbal memories.
    True
  35. T or F
    The endocrine system secretes hormones into the blood stream for communication.
    True
  36. Pituitary Gland
    master gland
  37. Pineal Gland
    releases melatonin which is associated with sleep cycles.
  38. Thyroid Gland
    regulates metabolism
  39. Adrenal Gland
    affects sexual functioning,regulates salt balance,adjust body to stress.
  40. Dysfunction of the Thyroid Gland
    tenseness,nervousness, and excitability
  41. Dysfunction of the Pineal Gland
    sleep cycle disturbance
  42. Dysfunction of the Adrenal Gland
    virilism
  43. Dysfunction of the pituitary gland
    acromegaly
  44. The study of progressive changes in behavior and abilities from conception to death describes the field of psychology known as
    developmental psychology
  45. The part of the chromosome that contains instructions that affect a particular process or personal characteristic is called a
    gene
  46. Temperament refers to
    physical foundations or core of personality
  47. Each cell possesses 46 ______ that are responsible for all the genetic info. passed from parents to children.
    chromosomes
  48. The uniting of the egg and sperm is referred to as
    conception
  49. When a gene is _____, the trait it controls will be present every time the gene is present.
    dominant
  50. The human growth sequence, or the overall pattern of physical development is
    universal
  51. Relaxed and agreeable children are also known as
    easy children
  52. The existence of easy, difficult,and slow to warm up to children is considered evidence for
    hereditary differences in temperament
  53. A time of increased susceptibility to both positive and negative environmental influences is called a
    sensitive period
  54. Problems or defects that originate during prenatal dev. in the mother's womb are called
    congenital problems
  55. FAS or fetal alcohol syndrome is a _______ problem.
    congenital
  56. A terotagen is any
    substance capable of causing birth defects.
  57. A lack of normal stimulation,nutrition,comfort, or love is referred to as
    deprivation
  58. When psychologists attribute development to nature, they are referring to the effect of
    heredity and genetics
  59. The physical growth and dev. of the body, brain, and nervous system is called
    maturation
  60. Amy lifts her head, then learns to crawl, then to walk, with the development progressing from head to feet. This progression illustrates what pattern?
    cephalocaudal pattern
  61. Social referencing refers to
    observing others to obtain info. or guidance
  62. Securely attached, Insecure-avoidant, Insecure-ambivalent are attachment styles described by who?
    Mary Ainsworth
  63. You leave your child with a babysitter. When you return, your child ignores you. Your child's behavior indicated a ________ attachment.
    insecure-avoidant
  64. Exploring the world, practicing social skills, and  communication all come from children _____.
    playing
  65. Nat likes to "lay down the law" and takes no arguments from his children. According to the research on parenting styles by Diana Baumrind, Nat is exhibiting _______ parenting.
    authoritarian
  66. The repetition of only vowel sounds like "ah" or "oo" is called
    cooing
  67. Piaget is mainly known for studying
    cognitive development
  68. The concept that mass,weight and volume remain unchanged despite changes in the appearance of the objects is called
    conservation
  69. T or F 
    Permissive parents are democratic in their view of parenting by providing consistency and participation by the children in determining family rules.
    False
  70. T or F
    According to Piaget, full adult intellectual ability is attained during the sensorimotor stage of development.
    False
  71. T or F
    Parentese is a unique special way parents talk to their infants.
    True
  72. T or F
    According to Erikson, developing a sense of integrity is a special challenge in late adulthood.
    True
  73. T or F
    Piaget's preoperational stage (ages 2 to 7) focuses on the concepts of space,time, volume, and number.
    False
  74. T or F
    Vgotsky's "Zone of proximal development" refers to tasks the child cannot master alone, but is capable of doing with the guidance of a more capable person.
    True
  75. T or F
    The search for identity, according to Erikson, is one of the developmental tasks of young adulthood.
    False
  76. T or F
    Moral development refers to the development of values,beliefs, and thinking abilities that act as a guide regarding acceptable behavior.
    True
  77. T or F
    A psychosocial dilemma is a conflict between your own personal impulses and the social world around you.
    True
  78. T or F
    Traits that are determined by many genes working together are called polygenic traits.
    true
  79. T or F
    Authoritative parents enforce rigid rules and demand strict obedience.
    False
  80. T or F
    Fetal alcohol syndrome is characterized by low birth weight,a small head, and bodily defects.
    True
  81. T or F
    One of the accomplishments of the sensorimotor stage of development, according to erikson, is learning object permanence.
    true
  82. T or F
    One's developmental level is determined only by the environment.
    False
  83. T or F
    Difficult children are excessively shy.
    False
  84. Accomplishment of Sensorimotor stage.
    object permanence
  85. Accomplishment of Preoperational stage.
    thinks symbolically, but still egocentric and intuitive.
  86. Accomplishment of Concrete operational stage.
    conservation
  87. Accomplishment of Formal stage.
    thinks in terms of abstract principles and hypothesizes.
  88. A device, such as the eye, that coverts energy from one systim to another is a
    transducer
  89. One drop of perfume in a three-room apartment is an example of
    absolute threshold of smell
  90. Info. processed below the normal threshold of awareness is called
    Subliminal
  91. Visual perception is ultimately a function of the
    neural activity in the brain
  92. The process of detecting physical energies with the sensory organs is called
    Sensation
  93. The process by which the brain organizes sensations into meaningful patterns is known as
    Perception
  94. When listening to your professor's lecture; hearing the various sounds of the professor's words would be ______. Interpreting the meaning of the professor's words is an example of _____.
    Sensation;perception
  95. The smallest package of light is called
    Photon
  96. What part of the eye does most of the focusing on an image?
    cornea
  97. Which kind of visual impairment is also called nearsightedness?
    myopia
  98. Astigmatism is the misshaping of the _____ or ___.
    cornea;lens
  99. A change in stimulus intensity that is detectable to an observer is known as the ______ threshold.
    Difference
  100. According to Weber's Law, if a cup of coffee has five teaspoons of sugar in it, you will have to add __ more before it will be noticeably different.
    one
  101. Which of the following is not a taste quality?
    • -sweet
    • -salty
    • -brothy
    • -spicy
  102. Pain associated with the skin,muscles, joints and tendons is called
    somatic pain
  103. Airborne chemicals, which are often used by animals to identify territory and even family members are known as
    pheromones
  104. When a sensory message fails to reach awareness bc it is altered in the spinal cord, this is known as
    sensory gating
  105. Larry is red-green color-blind. This means
    he perceives the colors red and green as being the same.
  106. Although the olfactory membrane has 400 different receptors, we can actually detect
    About 10,000 odors
  107. Which of the following types of cells produce color sensations and work best in bright light?
    Cones
  108. The term indicating the basic color categories is
    Hue
  109. The type of sensation you experience depends on which area of the brain is activated. This is known as
    Sensory localization
  110. The electromagnetic spectrum includes visible light, infrared and ultraviolet light, television broadcasts, radio waves, and
    gamma rays
  111. The blind spot is formed
    where the optic nerve leaves the eye
  112. The auditory ossicles are
    • -the malleus, incus,and strapes
    • -the hammer, anvil, and stirrup 
    • -three small bones
    • -all of these
  113. The part of the ear the funnels sound into the ear canal is called the
    pinna
  114. Sound energy is converted to nerve impulses by the hair cells inside the
    cochlea
  115. Hearing loss caused when the eardrum or ossicles are damaged by disease or injury is a _______ hearing loss.
    conductive
  116. Olfaction is another name for the sense
    smell
  117. The ringing sensation following exposure to loud sounds is called
    tinnitus
  118. The lock and key system is used to explain
    olfaction
  119. T or F
    With regard to taste, we are most sensitive to sweet and least sensitive to bitter.
    False
  120. T or F
    The process in which the brain organizes sensations into meaningful patterns is known as perception.
    True
  121. T or F
    The minimum amount of energy needed for sensation to occur is called the difference threshold.
    False
  122. T or F
    The process by which the lens of the eye changes shape is called accommodation.
    True
  123. T or F
    The pitch of sound corresponds to the frequency of sound waves, while the loudness is due to the amplitude of the sound waves.
    True
  124. T or F
    A long -time rock musician probably suffers from a conductive hearing loss.
    False
  125. T or F
    Sense organs in the joints and muscles contribute to the kinesthetic sense.
    True
  126. T or F
    Moving your head from side to side and breathing rapidly are two ways that a person can alleviate motion sickness.
    False
  127. T or F
    When ppl lose an arm, they may at first have a phantom arm and hand, while many years later, the phantom may shrink, until only a hand is felt at the shoulder.
    True
  128. T or F
    The skin has more nerve endings for pain than for touch or pressure.
    True
  129. T or F
    Olfaction and gustation are considered vestibular senses.
    False
  130. T or F
    The three small bones in the middle ear are called cochlear bones.
    False
  131. T or F
    The shortest waves of visual light are sensed as red, while the longest wave lengths are sensed as purple.
    False
  132. T or F
    Subliminal advertising is a powerful influence, which can involuntarily cause people to purchase items.
    True
  133. T or F
    The blind spot is formed where the optic nerve leaves the eye.
    True
  134. A state of clear, organized alertness is
    waking consciousness
  135. In which of the stages of sleep would a person be most difficult to wake?
    Stage 4
  136. In which stage would a hypnic jerk be most likely to occur?
    Stage 1
  137. Which of the following is true of NREM sleep?
    • * it may help the body recover from bodily fatigue.
    • -breathing becomes irregular.
    • -NREM sleep is marked by fast EEG patterns.
    • -Dreams are more vivid and emotional during NREM.
  138. During which type of sleep would nightmares typically occur?
    REM sleep
  139. Sleep apnea refers to a problem with
    breathing during sleep
  140. Evidence shows that hypnosis does not produce
    superhuman acts of strength
  141. Stimulants _______ nervous system activity, whereas depressants _______ it.
    increase;decrease
  142. Which term refers to the increasing need for greater amounts of a drug to produce the same effect?
    drug tolerance
  143. The single most preventable cause of death in the US and Canada is
    smoking
  144. At high dosages, marijuana can cause
    • -paranoia
    • -hallucinations
    • -delusions
    • *all of the above
  145. Delirium,ecstasy, and daydreaming all have in common the fact that they are
    ASCs  Altered states of consciousness
  146. Sleep spindles usually first appear in stage _____, whereas delta waves first appear in stage ___.
    2;3
  147. Emotional arousal, blood pressure changes, and sexual arousal all primarily occur during
    REM sleep
  148. Microsleeps would most likely occur
    during sleep deprivation.
  149. The basic suggestion effect is closely related to
    hypnosis
  150. The two most basic states of sleep are
    REM and NREM
  151. A particularly dangerous drug interaction occurs when ______ and _______ are combined.
    alcohol;barbiturates
  152. Narcolepsy is an example of
    a sleep disorder
  153. In addition to the nicotine they contain, cigarettes release
    carcinogens
  154. Joan is 14 years old and is experiencing ______ throughout the day because she tends to stay up late and gets up early.
    hypersomnia
  155. Gene was awakened throughout the night for a sleep study and did not receive enough REM sleep. The next night, he was allowed to sleep without interruption. Gene would be likely to experience
    REM rebound
  156. T or F
    A total inability to sleep results in death.
    True
  157. T or F
    Physical changes during puberty increase adolescents' need for sleep.
    True
  158. T or F
    Without scheduled light and dark periods, human sleep rhythms would drift into unusual patterns.
    True
  159. T or F
    A hypnic jerk is a sign of serious problems.
    False
  160. T or F
    Most people change positions in bed during REM sleep.
    False
  161. T or F
    Caffeine, alcohol, and tobacco can all contribute to insomnia.
    True
  162. T or F
    REM sleep appears to help the brain process memories formed during the day.
    True
  163. T or F
    Sleep apnea does not increase the risk of having a heart attack. This is only a myth.
    False
  164. T or F
    According to Freud, dreams represent thoughts and wishes expressed as images.
    True
  165. T or F
    During mindfulness meditation, one attends to a single focal point.
    False
  166. T or F
    Cocaine (coke or snow) produces feelings of alertness, euphoria, wellbeing, powerfulness, boundless energy, and pleasure.
    True
  167. T or F
    Twenty-five cigarettes could be fatal for a nonsmoker.
    True
  168. T or F
    It is legal and safe to drive as long as blood alcohol level does not exceed 0.8.
    False
  169. T or F
    People who smoke marijuana on a regular basis report that they are satisfied with their lives, earn more money, and are healthier than nonusers at the age of 29.
    False
  170. T or F
    Drug abuse is frequently part of a general pattern of personal maladjustment.
    True

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