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2013-03-01 19:27:22

chapters 2,3,4,and 5.
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  1. The brain consists of approximately 100 billion nerve cells called?
  2. Neurons are made up of dendrites, a soma, and...
  3. The part of the neuron which collects and combines info. is called the
  4. The part of the neuron that specializes in receiving messages from other neurons is the
  5. The conduction of a nerve impulse down the axon is called a
    action potential
  6. The tiny gaps separating neurons from one another and across which info. must be transmitted are known as
  7. The chemicals that are released at an axon terminal and can either excite or inhibit other neurons are called
  8. The fatty tissue that gives many nerves a whitish color is called
  9. The central nervous system is composed of the
    brain and spinal cord
  10. The peripheral nervous system is composed of the
    somatic and autonomatic
  11. Both surgical ablation and _______ remove brain tissue.
    deep lesioning
  12. An EEG records ________.
    electrical impulses from the brain
  13. ________ measures the structure of the brain by utilizing a series of x-rays.
    CT scan
  14. The MRI scan obtains an image of the brain by using
    magnetic fields
  15. A PET scan detects ______ emitted by brain cells.
  16. Humans are superior to all other animals in ________.
  17. The ______ is the highest functioning and largest brain area found in humans.
  18. The cerebral cortex is composed of two sides or ________.
  19. The corpus callosum is a thick band of fibers that connect _______.
    the two cerebral hemispheres
  20. Bodily sensations such as touch, temperature, and pressure register in which brain area?
    the parietal lobes
  21. Aphasia is a
    language disturbance resulting from brain damage.
  22. Damage to Broca's area causes great difficulty in
    speaking or writing
  23. Severe damage to the ______ would likely result in death.
  24. Damage to the cerebellum would most likely result in
    loss of muscular coordination
  25. T or F
    Acetycholine, epinephrine, dopamine, and histamine are neurotransmitters.
  26. T or F
    The main divisions of the human nervous system are the autonomic nervous system and the central nervous system.
  27. T or F
    There are 12 pairs of cranial nerves that leave the brain directly.
  28. T or F
    In humans, the right side of the brain mainly controls the left side of the body.
  29. T or F 
    The cellebellum stores skill memories such as riding a bike.
  30. T or F
    After watching violent scenes, men have lower levels of testosterone.
  31. T or F
    Enlarged hands, feet, and facial bones may be the result of acromegaly.
  32. Tor F
    The thyroid gland is considered the "master gland" and regulates the functioning of other glands.

    it is the pituitary gland.
  33. T or F
    Melatonin is released by the thyroid gland.
  34. T or F
    The hippocampus is the part of the brain that stores lasting verbal memories.
  35. T or F
    The endocrine system secretes hormones into the blood stream for communication.
  36. Pituitary Gland
    master gland
  37. Pineal Gland
    releases melatonin which is associated with sleep cycles.
  38. Thyroid Gland
    regulates metabolism
  39. Adrenal Gland
    affects sexual functioning,regulates salt balance,adjust body to stress.
  40. Dysfunction of the Thyroid Gland
    tenseness,nervousness, and excitability
  41. Dysfunction of the Pineal Gland
    sleep cycle disturbance
  42. Dysfunction of the Adrenal Gland
  43. Dysfunction of the pituitary gland
  44. The study of progressive changes in behavior and abilities from conception to death describes the field of psychology known as
    developmental psychology
  45. The part of the chromosome that contains instructions that affect a particular process or personal characteristic is called a
  46. Temperament refers to
    physical foundations or core of personality
  47. Each cell possesses 46 ______ that are responsible for all the genetic info. passed from parents to children.
  48. The uniting of the egg and sperm is referred to as
  49. When a gene is _____, the trait it controls will be present every time the gene is present.
  50. The human growth sequence, or the overall pattern of physical development is
  51. Relaxed and agreeable children are also known as
    easy children
  52. The existence of easy, difficult,and slow to warm up to children is considered evidence for
    hereditary differences in temperament
  53. A time of increased susceptibility to both positive and negative environmental influences is called a
    sensitive period
  54. Problems or defects that originate during prenatal dev. in the mother's womb are called
    congenital problems
  55. FAS or fetal alcohol syndrome is a _______ problem.
  56. A terotagen is any
    substance capable of causing birth defects.
  57. A lack of normal stimulation,nutrition,comfort, or love is referred to as
  58. When psychologists attribute development to nature, they are referring to the effect of
    heredity and genetics
  59. The physical growth and dev. of the body, brain, and nervous system is called
  60. Amy lifts her head, then learns to crawl, then to walk, with the development progressing from head to feet. This progression illustrates what pattern?
    cephalocaudal pattern
  61. Social referencing refers to
    observing others to obtain info. or guidance
  62. Securely attached, Insecure-avoidant, Insecure-ambivalent are attachment styles described by who?
    Mary Ainsworth
  63. You leave your child with a babysitter. When you return, your child ignores you. Your child's behavior indicated a ________ attachment.
  64. Exploring the world, practicing social skills, and  communication all come from children _____.
  65. Nat likes to "lay down the law" and takes no arguments from his children. According to the research on parenting styles by Diana Baumrind, Nat is exhibiting _______ parenting.
  66. The repetition of only vowel sounds like "ah" or "oo" is called
  67. Piaget is mainly known for studying
    cognitive development
  68. The concept that mass,weight and volume remain unchanged despite changes in the appearance of the objects is called
  69. T or F 
    Permissive parents are democratic in their view of parenting by providing consistency and participation by the children in determining family rules.
  70. T or F
    According to Piaget, full adult intellectual ability is attained during the sensorimotor stage of development.
  71. T or F
    Parentese is a unique special way parents talk to their infants.
  72. T or F
    According to Erikson, developing a sense of integrity is a special challenge in late adulthood.
  73. T or F
    Piaget's preoperational stage (ages 2 to 7) focuses on the concepts of space,time, volume, and number.
  74. T or F
    Vgotsky's "Zone of proximal development" refers to tasks the child cannot master alone, but is capable of doing with the guidance of a more capable person.
  75. T or F
    The search for identity, according to Erikson, is one of the developmental tasks of young adulthood.
  76. T or F
    Moral development refers to the development of values,beliefs, and thinking abilities that act as a guide regarding acceptable behavior.
  77. T or F
    A psychosocial dilemma is a conflict between your own personal impulses and the social world around you.
  78. T or F
    Traits that are determined by many genes working together are called polygenic traits.
  79. T or F
    Authoritative parents enforce rigid rules and demand strict obedience.
  80. T or F
    Fetal alcohol syndrome is characterized by low birth weight,a small head, and bodily defects.
  81. T or F
    One of the accomplishments of the sensorimotor stage of development, according to erikson, is learning object permanence.
  82. T or F
    One's developmental level is determined only by the environment.
  83. T or F
    Difficult children are excessively shy.
  84. Accomplishment of Sensorimotor stage.
    object permanence
  85. Accomplishment of Preoperational stage.
    thinks symbolically, but still egocentric and intuitive.
  86. Accomplishment of Concrete operational stage.
  87. Accomplishment of Formal stage.
    thinks in terms of abstract principles and hypothesizes.
  88. A device, such as the eye, that coverts energy from one systim to another is a
  89. One drop of perfume in a three-room apartment is an example of
    absolute threshold of smell
  90. Info. processed below the normal threshold of awareness is called
  91. Visual perception is ultimately a function of the
    neural activity in the brain
  92. The process of detecting physical energies with the sensory organs is called
  93. The process by which the brain organizes sensations into meaningful patterns is known as
  94. When listening to your professor's lecture; hearing the various sounds of the professor's words would be ______. Interpreting the meaning of the professor's words is an example of _____.
  95. The smallest package of light is called
  96. What part of the eye does most of the focusing on an image?
  97. Which kind of visual impairment is also called nearsightedness?
  98. Astigmatism is the misshaping of the _____ or ___.
  99. A change in stimulus intensity that is detectable to an observer is known as the ______ threshold.
  100. According to Weber's Law, if a cup of coffee has five teaspoons of sugar in it, you will have to add __ more before it will be noticeably different.
  101. Which of the following is not a taste quality?
    • -sweet
    • -salty
    • -brothy
    • -spicy
  102. Pain associated with the skin,muscles, joints and tendons is called
    somatic pain
  103. Airborne chemicals, which are often used by animals to identify territory and even family members are known as
  104. When a sensory message fails to reach awareness bc it is altered in the spinal cord, this is known as
    sensory gating
  105. Larry is red-green color-blind. This means
    he perceives the colors red and green as being the same.
  106. Although the olfactory membrane has 400 different receptors, we can actually detect
    About 10,000 odors
  107. Which of the following types of cells produce color sensations and work best in bright light?
  108. The term indicating the basic color categories is
  109. The type of sensation you experience depends on which area of the brain is activated. This is known as
    Sensory localization
  110. The electromagnetic spectrum includes visible light, infrared and ultraviolet light, television broadcasts, radio waves, and
    gamma rays
  111. The blind spot is formed
    where the optic nerve leaves the eye
  112. The auditory ossicles are
    • -the malleus, incus,and strapes
    • -the hammer, anvil, and stirrup 
    • -three small bones
    • -all of these
  113. The part of the ear the funnels sound into the ear canal is called the
  114. Sound energy is converted to nerve impulses by the hair cells inside the
  115. Hearing loss caused when the eardrum or ossicles are damaged by disease or injury is a _______ hearing loss.
  116. Olfaction is another name for the sense
  117. The ringing sensation following exposure to loud sounds is called
  118. The lock and key system is used to explain
  119. T or F
    With regard to taste, we are most sensitive to sweet and least sensitive to bitter.
  120. T or F
    The process in which the brain organizes sensations into meaningful patterns is known as perception.
  121. T or F
    The minimum amount of energy needed for sensation to occur is called the difference threshold.
  122. T or F
    The process by which the lens of the eye changes shape is called accommodation.
  123. T or F
    The pitch of sound corresponds to the frequency of sound waves, while the loudness is due to the amplitude of the sound waves.
  124. T or F
    A long -time rock musician probably suffers from a conductive hearing loss.
  125. T or F
    Sense organs in the joints and muscles contribute to the kinesthetic sense.
  126. T or F
    Moving your head from side to side and breathing rapidly are two ways that a person can alleviate motion sickness.
  127. T or F
    When ppl lose an arm, they may at first have a phantom arm and hand, while many years later, the phantom may shrink, until only a hand is felt at the shoulder.
  128. T or F
    The skin has more nerve endings for pain than for touch or pressure.
  129. T or F
    Olfaction and gustation are considered vestibular senses.
  130. T or F
    The three small bones in the middle ear are called cochlear bones.
  131. T or F
    The shortest waves of visual light are sensed as red, while the longest wave lengths are sensed as purple.
  132. T or F
    Subliminal advertising is a powerful influence, which can involuntarily cause people to purchase items.
  133. T or F
    The blind spot is formed where the optic nerve leaves the eye.
  134. A state of clear, organized alertness is
    waking consciousness
  135. In which of the stages of sleep would a person be most difficult to wake?
    Stage 4
  136. In which stage would a hypnic jerk be most likely to occur?
    Stage 1
  137. Which of the following is true of NREM sleep?
    • * it may help the body recover from bodily fatigue.
    • -breathing becomes irregular.
    • -NREM sleep is marked by fast EEG patterns.
    • -Dreams are more vivid and emotional during NREM.
  138. During which type of sleep would nightmares typically occur?
    REM sleep
  139. Sleep apnea refers to a problem with
    breathing during sleep
  140. Evidence shows that hypnosis does not produce
    superhuman acts of strength
  141. Stimulants _______ nervous system activity, whereas depressants _______ it.
  142. Which term refers to the increasing need for greater amounts of a drug to produce the same effect?
    drug tolerance
  143. The single most preventable cause of death in the US and Canada is
  144. At high dosages, marijuana can cause
    • -paranoia
    • -hallucinations
    • -delusions
    • *all of the above
  145. Delirium,ecstasy, and daydreaming all have in common the fact that they are
    ASCs  Altered states of consciousness
  146. Sleep spindles usually first appear in stage _____, whereas delta waves first appear in stage ___.
  147. Emotional arousal, blood pressure changes, and sexual arousal all primarily occur during
    REM sleep
  148. Microsleeps would most likely occur
    during sleep deprivation.
  149. The basic suggestion effect is closely related to
  150. The two most basic states of sleep are
    REM and NREM
  151. A particularly dangerous drug interaction occurs when ______ and _______ are combined.
  152. Narcolepsy is an example of
    a sleep disorder
  153. In addition to the nicotine they contain, cigarettes release
  154. Joan is 14 years old and is experiencing ______ throughout the day because she tends to stay up late and gets up early.
  155. Gene was awakened throughout the night for a sleep study and did not receive enough REM sleep. The next night, he was allowed to sleep without interruption. Gene would be likely to experience
    REM rebound
  156. T or F
    A total inability to sleep results in death.
  157. T or F
    Physical changes during puberty increase adolescents' need for sleep.
  158. T or F
    Without scheduled light and dark periods, human sleep rhythms would drift into unusual patterns.
  159. T or F
    A hypnic jerk is a sign of serious problems.
  160. T or F
    Most people change positions in bed during REM sleep.
  161. T or F
    Caffeine, alcohol, and tobacco can all contribute to insomnia.
  162. T or F
    REM sleep appears to help the brain process memories formed during the day.
  163. T or F
    Sleep apnea does not increase the risk of having a heart attack. This is only a myth.
  164. T or F
    According to Freud, dreams represent thoughts and wishes expressed as images.
  165. T or F
    During mindfulness meditation, one attends to a single focal point.
  166. T or F
    Cocaine (coke or snow) produces feelings of alertness, euphoria, wellbeing, powerfulness, boundless energy, and pleasure.
  167. T or F
    Twenty-five cigarettes could be fatal for a nonsmoker.
  168. T or F
    It is legal and safe to drive as long as blood alcohol level does not exceed 0.8.
  169. T or F
    People who smoke marijuana on a regular basis report that they are satisfied with their lives, earn more money, and are healthier than nonusers at the age of 29.
  170. T or F
    Drug abuse is frequently part of a general pattern of personal maladjustment.