Biology Exam Review

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courtneydurrett
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204327
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Biology Exam Review
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2013-03-01 17:23:29
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Chapters 16 18
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  1. Sedimentary structure consisting of laminated carbonate or silicate rocks
    Stromatolites
  2. What type of prokaryotes are found in stromalites?
    Photosynthetic cyanobacteria
  3. Is it true that prokaryotes' mass significantly outweighs eukarkyotes?
    True
  4. Able to cause disease
    Pathogenic
  5. A bacteria, virus, or fungus that takes advantage of certain opportunities to cause disease
    Opportunistic Pathogen
  6. What are the three morphologies of bacteria?
    Bacilli, Cocci, and Spirochete
  7. Name for the bacteria shape that is rod-shaped or oval
    Bacilli
  8. Name for the bacteria shape that is round or spherical
    Cocci
  9. Name for the bacteria shape that is corkscrew or spiral
    Spirochete
  10. What are bacterial walls made up of?
    Peptidoglycan
  11. Thick peptidoglycan
    Gram Positive
  12. Thin Peptidoglycan
    Gram Negative
  13. Hair like appendages
    Pili
  14. Conjugation + adherent
    Pili
  15. Flagella + Cilia
    Movement
  16. How can prokaryotes withstand harsh conditions?
    By forming endospores
  17. A resistant asexual spore that develops inside some bacteria cells; has a thick protective coat
    Endospores
  18. What types of bacteria carry out photosynthesis?
    Cyanobacteria
  19. Smaller rings of DNA that carry genes that may provide resistance to antibiotics or metabolize rare nutrients, among other metabolic activities
    Plasmids
  20. thin, slimy film of bacteria that adheres to a surface; channels in this allow nutrients and wastes to move inside and outside of it
    Biofilms
  21. We get some of our antibiotics from bacteria. What is the major source?
    Streptomyces
  22. Proteins secreted by bacterial cells
    Exotoxins
  23. Components of the outer membrane of a gram-negative bacteria, released when the cell dies or is digested by a defensive cell
    Endotoxins
  24. What causes Lyme's Disease?
    Borrelia burgdorferi
  25. What prokaryotes are "hot topics" for biological weapons?
    Anthrax, Botulism, the Plague
  26. Using organisms to clean up pollutants
    Bioremidation
  27. Close association between organisms of two or more species
    Symbiosis
  28. How do amoeba move?
    Pseudopods (false feet)
  29. Eukaryotes with a membrane-bound chromosome, multiple chromosome, flagella or cilia with 9 + 2 pattern of microtubules
    Protists
  30. Produce own food
    Autotroph
  31. Must ingest food
    Heterotroph
  32. Mutually beneficial association of plant roots and fungi hyphae; enabled plants to colonize land
    Mycorrhizae
  33. Seeds develop within protective ovaries
    Angiosperms
  34. produce seeds in cones
    Gymnosperms
  35. What percentage of our prescription drugs come from plants?
    More than 25%
  36. Heterotrophic eukaryotes; digest their food externally and absorb the nutrients
    Fungi
  37. A plant consisting of algae or cyanobacteria within a fungal network
    Lichens
  38. Multicelluar eukaryote, a photoautotroph, making organic molecules by photosynthesis
    Plant
  39. Subterranean organs (underground)
    Roots
  40. Aerial leaf-bearing organs (above ground)
    Shoots
  41. Located in leaves of plants, allow for the exchange of carbon dioxide and oxygen with the atmosphere
    Stomata
  42. transport vital materials within a plant
    Vascular tissue
  43. Helps the plant retain water
    Cuticle
  44. What are the 4 major groups of plants?
    Bryophytes, ferns, gymnosperms, angiosperms
  45. The major group of plants that are non-vascular without lignified walls, true roots, or true leaves. For example: Mosses
    Bryophytes
  46. The major group of plants that have vascular tissue hardened with lignin, without seeds
    Ferns
  47. The major group of plants that evolve with seeds that consist of an embryo packaged along with a store of food within a protective covering but not enclosed in specialized chambers. For example: Conifers
    Gymnosperms
  48. The major group of plants with complex reproductive structures called flowers that bear seeds within protective chambers called ovaries
    Angiosperms
  49. Formed from the remains of long-dead organisms; include coal, oil, and natural gas
    Fossil fuels
  50. Helps protect he seed and increases seed disperal
    Fruits
  51. What are 3 mechanisms of seed dispersal?
    Wind dispersal, animal transportation, animal ingestion
  52. Thread-like filaments on the bodies of most fungi
    Hyphae
  53. Interwoven network of hyphae branches, it's also the feeding structure of the fungus
    Mycelium
  54. What is the major role for fungi in the environment?
    Principal decomposers of ecosystems and keep ecosystems stocked with inorganic nutrients necessary for plant growth
  55. Eukaryotic, multicellular, heterotrophic organism that obtain nutrients by ingestion, able to digest their food within their bodies
    Animal
  56. What are HOX genes?
    Important in development
  57. Any slice through the central axis that divides the animal into mirror image halves
    Radial Symmetry
  58. Mirror image right and left sides, a distinct head and tail, and a back (dorsal) and belly (ventral) surface
    Bilateral Symmetry
  59. What invertebrates lack true tissues?
    Sponges
  60. What invertebrates exhibit radial symmetry?
    Cnidarians
  61. What two body forms do cnidarians assume?
    Polyp and Medusa
  62. Filtering food particles from water passed through food-trapping equipment; For example: sponges
    Suspension feeders
  63. Represented by soft-bodied animals, usually protected by a hard shell; feed by using a file-like organ called a radula to scrape up food
    Molluscs
  64. 3 Major groups of molluscs
    Gastropods, bivalves, cephalopods
  65. Named for their jointed appendages
    Arthopods
  66. What are the 4 major groups of arthropods?
    Arachnids, crustaceans, millipedes and centipedes, and insects
  67. 3 main parts of the body of an insect
    head, thorax, abdomen
  68. Where do insects live?
    Almost every terrestrial habitat, fresh water, the air
  69. What insects undergo in their development process
    Metamorphisis
  70. Marine invertebrates, lack body segments have an endoskeleton, and a water vascular system that facilitates movement and gas exchange
    Echinoderms

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