Reproductive Choices

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Reproductive Choices
2013-03-01 18:00:18
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Chapter 8
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  1. conception
    the merging of a sperm and an ovum
  2. spermatogenesis
    the process by which sperm cells are produced
  3. fertilization
    the fusion of sperm and egg nucleus
  4. zygote
    a fertilized egg
  5. blastocyst
    in embryonic development, a ball of cells with a surface layer and an inner cell mass
  6. implantation
    the embedding of the fertilized ovum in the uterine lining
  7. contraception
    the prevention of conception; birth control
  8. barrier contraceptives
    birth control devices that block the meeting of egg and sperm, either by physical barriers, such as condoms, diaphragms, or cervical caps, or by chemical barriers, such as spermicide, or both
  9. condom
    a latex sheath worn over the penis during sexual acts to prevent conception and/or the transmission of disease; the female condom lines the walls of the vagina
  10. vaginal spermicide
    a substance that kills or neutralizes sperm, inserted into the vagina in the form of a foam, cream, jelly, suppository, or film
  11. vaginal contraceptive film (VCF)
    a small dissolvable sheet saturated with spermicide that can be inserted into the vagina and placed over the cervix
  12. diaphragm
    a bowl-like rubber cup with a flexible rim that is inserted into the vagina to cover the cervix and prevent the passage of sperm into the uterus during sexual intercourse; used with a spermicidal foam or jelly, it serves as both a chemical and physical barrier to sperm
  13. cervical cap
    a thimble-size rubber or plastic cap that is inserted into the vagina to fit over the cervix and prevent the passage of sperm into the uterus during sexual intercourse; used with a spermicidal foam or jelly, it serves as both a chemical and a physical barrier to sperm
  14. oral contraceptives
    preparations of synthetic hormones that inhibit ovulation; also referred to as birth control pills or simply the pill
  15. monophasic pill
    an oral contraceptive that releases synthetic estrogen and progestin at constant levels throughout the menstrual cycle
  16. multiphasic pill
    an oral contraceptive that releases different levels of estrogen and progestin to mimic the hormonal fluctuations of the natural menstrual cycle
  17. minipill, progestin-only pill
    an oral contraceptive containing a small amount of progestin and no estrogen, which prevents contraception by making the mucus in the cervix so thick that sperm cannot enter the uterus
  18. intrauterine device (IUD)
    a device inserted into the uterus through the cervix to prevent pregnancy by interfering with implantation
  19. rhythm method
    a birth control method in which sexual intercourse is avoided during those days of the menstrual cycle in which fertilization is most likely to occur
  20. emergency contraception (EC)
    types of oral contraceptive pills, usually taken within 72 hours after intercourse, that can prevent pregnancy
  21. sterilization
    a surgical procedure to end a person's reproductive capability
  22. vasectomy
    a surgical sterilization procedure in which each vas deferens is cut and tied shut to stop the passage of sperm to the urethra for ejaculation
  23. tubal ligation
    the suturing or tying shut of the fallopian tubes to prevent pregnancy
  24. tubal occlusion
    the blocking of the fallopian tubes to prevent pregnancy
  25. laparoscopy
    a surgical sterilization procedure in which the fallopian tubes are observed, with a laparoscope inserted through a small incision, and then cut or blocked
  26. medical abortion
    method of ending a pregnancy within nine weeks of conception using hormonal medications that cause expulsion of the fertilized egg
  27. suction curettage
    a procedure in which the contents of the uterus are removed by means of suction and scraping
  28. dilation and evacuation (D and E)
    a medical procedure in which the contents of the uterus are removed through the use of instruments
  29. preconception care
    health care to prepare for pregnancy
  30. embryo
    an organism in its early stage of development; in humans, the embryonic period lasts the second to the eighth week of pregnancy
  31. amnion
    the innermost membrane of the sac enclosing the embryo or fetus
  32. fetus
    the human organism developing in the uterus from the ninth week until birth
  33. placenta
    an organ that develops after implantation and to which the embryo attaches, via the umbilical cord, for nourishment and waste removal
  34. ectopic pregnancy
    a pregnancy in which the fertilized egg has implanted itself outside the uterine cavity, usually in the fallopian tube
  35. miscarriage
    a pregnancy that terminates before the twentieth week of gestation; also called spontaneous abortion
  36. rubella
    an infectious disease that may cause birth defects if contracted by pregnant woman; also called German measles
  37. premature labor
    labor that occurs after the twentieth week but before the thirty-seventh week of pregnancy
  38. Lamaze method
    a method of childbirth preparation taught to expectant parents to help woman cope with the discomfort of labor; combines breathing and psychological techniques
  39. labor
    the process leading up to birth
  40. cesarean delivery
    the surgical procedure in which an infant is delivered through an incision made in the abdominal wall and uterus
  41. infertility
    the inability to conceive a child
  42. artificial insemination
    the introduction of viable sperm into the vagina by artificial means for the purpose of inducing conception