EMT 1/5

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EMT 1/5
2013-03-01 18:48:34
EMT module chapter

EMT module 1 chapter 5
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  1. abdominal quadrants
    four divisions of the abdomen used to pinpoint the location of a pain or injury; the right upper quadrant (RUQ), the left upper quadrant (LUQ) the right lower quadrant (RLQ) and the left lower quadrant (LLQ)
  2. acetabulum
    the pelvic socket into which the ball at the proximal end of the femur fits to form the hip joint
  3. acromioclavicular joint
    the joint where the acromion and the clavicle meet
  4. acromion process
    the highest portion of the shoulder
  5. alveoli
    the microscopic sacs of the lungs where gas exchange with the bloodstream takes place
  6. anatomical position
    the standard reference position for the body in the study of anatomy. in this position, the body is standing erect, facing the observer, with arms down at the sides and the palms of the hands forward
  7. anatomy
    the study of body structure
  8. anterior
    the front of the body or body part
  9. aorta
    the largest artery in the body. it transports blood from the left ventricle to bein systemic cirulation
  10. appendix
    a small tube located near the junction of the small and large intestines in the right lower quadrant of the adoment the function of which is not well understood. its inflammation, called appendicitis, is a common cause of abdominal pain
  11. arteriole
    the smallest kind of artery
  12. artery
    any blood vessel carrying blood away from the heart
  13. atria
    the two upper chamers of the heart. there is a right atrium (which receives unoxygenatedb lood returning from the body) and a left atrium (which receives oxygenated blood returning from the lungs).
  14. automaticity
    the ability of the heart to generate and conduct electrical impulses on its own
  15. autonomic nervous system
    the division of the peripheral nervous system that controls involuntary motor functions
  16. bilateral
    on both sides
  17. bladder
    the round sac-like organ of the renal system used as a reservoir the urine
  18. blood pressure
    the pressure caused by blood exerting force against the walls of blood vessels. usually arterial blood pressure (pressure in artery) is measured. there are two types diastolic and systolic blood pressure
  19. brachial artery
    artery of the upper arm; the site of the pulse checked during infant CPR
  20. bronchi
    the two large sets of branches that ocme off the trachea an enter the lungs. there are right and left bronchi. singular bronchus
  21. calcaneus
    the heel bond
  22. capillary
    a thing-walled, microscopic blood vessel where the obygen/carbon dioxide and nutrient/waste exchange with the body's cells takes place
  23. cardiac conduction system
    a system of specialized muscle tissues that conducts electrical impulses taht stimulate the heart to beat.
  24. cardiac muscle
    specialized involuntary muscle found only in the heart
  25. cardiovasular system
    the system made up of the heart (cardio) and the blood vessels (vasular); the circulatory system. sometimes called the circulatory system
  26. carotid arteries
    the large neck arteries, one on each side of the neck, that carry blood from the heart to the head.
  27. carpals
    the wrist bones
  28. central nervous system (CNS)
    the brain and spinal cord
  29. central pulses
    the carotid and femoral pulses, which can be felt in the central part of the body
  30. clavicle
    the collarbone
  31. combining form
    a word root with an added vowel that can be joined with other words, roots, or suffixes to form a new word; for example, the combining form them/o, which added to meter makes the new word thermometer
  32. compound
    a word formed from two or more whole words; for example, the compound smallpox formed from small and pox
  33. coronary arteries
    blood vessels that supply the muscle of the heart (myocardium)
  34. cranium
    the top, back, and sides of the skull
  35. cricoid cartilage
    the ring-shaped structure that forms the lower portion of the larynx
  36. dermis
    the inner (second) layer of skin, rich in blood vessels and nerves, found beneath the epidermis
  37. diaphragm
    the muscular structure that divides the chest cavity from the abdominal cavity. A major muscle of respiration
  38. diastolic blood pressure
    the pressure in the arteries when the left ventricle is refilling
  39. digestive system
    system by which food travels throught the body and is digested, or broken down into absorbable forms
  40. distal
    farther away from the torso
  41. dorsal
    referring to the back of the body or the back of the hand or foot. a synonym for posterior
  42. dorsalis pedis artery
    artery supplying the foot, lateral to the large tendon of the big toe
  43. endocrine system
    system of glands that produce chemicals called hormones that help to regulate many body activities and function
  44. epidermis
    the outer layer of skin
  45. epiglottis
    a leaf shaped structure that prevents food and foreign matter from entering the trachea
  46. epinephrine
    a hormone produced by the body. as a medication, it dilates respiratory passages and is used to relieve severe allergic reactions
  47. exhalation
    a passive process in which the intercostal (rib) muscles and the diaphragm relax, causing the chest cavity to decrease in size and air to flow out of the lungs
  48. femoral artery
    the major artery supplying the leg.
  49. femur
    the large bone of the thigh
  50. fibula
    the lateral and smaller bone of the lower leg
  51. fowler position
    a sitting position
  52. gallbladder
    a sac on the undersid of the liver that stores bile produced by the liver
  53. humerus
    the bone of the upper arm, between the shoulder and the elbow
  54. hypoperfusion
    inadequate perfusion of the cells and tissues of the body caused by insufficient flow of blood through the capillaries. also called shock
  55. ilium
    the superior and widest portion of the pelvis
  56. inferior
    away from the head; usuall compared with another structure that is closer to the head (ie. the lips are inferior to the nose)
  57. inhalation
    an active provess in which the intercostal (rib) muscles and the diaphragm contract, expanding the size of the chest cavity and causing air to flow into the lungs
  58. insulin
    a hormone produced by the pancreas or taken as a medication by many diabetics
  59. involuntary muscle
    muscle that responds automatically to brain signals but cannot be consciously controlled
  60. ischium
    the lower, posterior portions of the pelvis
  61. point
    the point where two bones come together
  62. kidneys
    organs of the renal system used to filter blood and regulate fluid levels in the body
  63. large intestine
    the musculartube that removes water from waste products received from the samll intestine and moves anything not absorbed by the body toward excretion from the body
  64. larynx
    the voice box
  65. lateral
    to the side, away from the midline of the body
  66. ligament
    tissue that connets bone to bone
  67. liver
    the largest organ of the body which produces bile to assist in breakdown of fats and assists in the metabolism of various substances in the body
  68. lungs
    the organs where exchange of atmospheric oxygen and waste carbond dioxide take place
  69. malleolus
    protrusion on the side of the ankle. the lateral malleolus, at the lower end of the fibular, is seen on the outer ankle; the medical malleolus at the lower end of the tibia, is seen on the inner ankle
  70. mandible
    the lower jaw bone
  71. manubrium
    the superior portion oof the sternum
  72. maxillae
    the two fused bones forming the upper jaw
  73. medical
    toward the midline of the body
  74. metacarpals
    the hand bones
  75. metatarsals
    the foot bones
  76. mid-axillary line
    a line drawn vertically from the middle of the armpit to the ankle
  77. mid-clavicular line
    the line through the center of each clavicle
  78. midline
    an imaginary line drawn downt he center of the body, dividing it into right and left halves
  79. muscle
    tissue that can contract to allow movement of a body part
  80. musuloskeletal system
    the system of bones and skeletal muscles that support and protect the body and permit movement
  81. nasal bones
    the nose bones
  82. nasopharynx
    the area directly posterior to the nose
  83. nervous system
    the system of brain, spinal cord, and nerves that govern sensation, movement, and thought
  84. orbits
    the bony structures around the eyes; the eye sockets
  85. oropharynx
    the area directly posterior to the mouth
  86. ovaries
    egg-producing organs within the female reproductive system
  87. palmar
    referring to the palm of the hand
  88. pancreas
    a gland located behind the stomach that produces insulin and juices that assist in digestion of food in the duodenum of the small intestine
  89. patella
    the kneecap
  90. pelvis
    the basin-shaped bony structure that supports the spine and is the point of proximal attachment for the lower extremities
  91. penis
    the organ of male reproduction responsible for sexual intercourse and the transfer of sperm
  92. perfusion
    the supply of oxygen to, and removal of wastes from the cells and tissues of the body as a result of the flow of blood through the capillaries
  93. peripheral nervous system (PNS)
    the nerves that enter and leave the spinal cord adn travel between the brain and organs without passing throught he spinal cord
  94. peripheral pulses
    the radial, branchial, posterior tibial, and dorsalis pedis pulses, which can be felt at peripheral (outlying) points of the body
  95. phalanges
    the toe bones and finger bones
  96. pharynx
    the area directly posterior to the mouth and nose. it is made up of the oropharynx and the nasopharynx
  97. physiology
    the study of body function
  98. plane
    a flat surface formed when slicing through a sold object
  99. plantar
    referring to the sole of the foot
  100. plasma
    the fluid portion of the blood
  101. platelets
    components of the blood; memrane-enclosed fragments of specialized cells
  102. posterior
    the back of the body or body part
  103. posterior tibial artery
    artery supplying the foot behind the medical ankle
  104. prefix
    word part added to the beginning of a root or word to modify or qualify its meaning
  105. prone
    lying face down
  106. proximal
    closer to the torso
  107. pubis
    the medial anterior portion of the pelvis
  108. pulmonary arteries
    the bessels that carry deoxygenated blood from the right ventricle of the heart to the lungs
  109. pulmonary veins
    the vessels that carry oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium of the heart
  110. pulse
    the rhythmic beats caused as waves of blood move through and expand the arteries
  111. radial artery
    artery of the lower arm. it is felt when taking the pulse at the wrist
  112. radius
    the lateral bone of the forearm
  113. recovery position
    lying on the side. Also called lateral recumbent position
  114. red blood cells
    components of the blood. they carry oxygen to and carbon dioxide away from the cellsĀ 
  115. renal system
    the body system that regulatse fluid balance and the filtration of blood. also caled the urinary system
  116. reproductive system
    the body system that is responsible for human reproduction
  117. respiration (cellular)
    the process of moving oxygen and carbon dioxide between ciruclating blood and the cells
  118. root
    foundation of a word that is not a word that can stand on its own
  119. scapula
    the shoulder blade
  120. shock
    see hypoperfusion
  121. skeleton
    the bones of the body
  122. skin
    the layer of tissue between the body and the external environment
  123. skull
    th bony structure of the head
  124. small intestine
    the muscular tube between the stomach and the large intestine, divided into the duodenum, the jejunum, and the ileum which receives partially digested food from the stomach and continues digestion. nutrients are absorved by the body through its walls
  125. spleen
    an organ located in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen that acts as a blood filtration system and a reservoir for reserves of blood
  126. sternum
    the breastbone
  127. stomach
    muscular sac between the esophagus and the small intestine where digestion of food begins
  128. subcutaneous layers
    the layers of fat and soft tissue found belo the dermis
  129. suffix
    word part added to the end of a root or word to complete its meaning;
  130. superior
    toward the head (ie hest is superior to the abdomen)
  131. supine
    lying on the back
  132. systolic blood pressure
    the pressure created in the arteries when the left ventricle contracts and forces blood out into circulation
  133. tarsals
    the andle bones
  134. tendon
    tissue that connects muscle to bone
  135. testes
    the male organs of reproduction used for the production of sperm
  136. thorax
    the chest
  137. thyroid cartilage
    the wing-shaped plate of cartilage that sits anterior to the larynx and forms the adams apple
  138. tibia
    the medial and larger bone of the lower leg
  139. torso
    the trunk of the body; the body without the head and the extremities
  140. trachea
    the windpipe. the structure that connects the pharynx to the lungs
  141. trendelenburg position
    a position in which the patient's feet and legs are higher than the head
  142. ulna
    the medial bone of the forearm
  143. aruters
    the tubes connecting the kidneys to the bladder
  144. urethra
    tuve connecting the bladder to the vegina or penis for excretion of urine
  145. uterus
    female organ of reproduction used to house the developing fetus
  146. vagina
    the female organ of reproduction used for both sexual intercourse and as an exit from the uterus for the fetus
  147. valve
    a structure that opens and closes to permit the flow of a fluid in only one direction
  148. vein
    any blood vessel returning blood to the heart
  149. venae cavae
    the superior vena cava and the inferior vena cava. these two major veins return blood from the body to the right artrium.
  150. ventilation
    the process of moving gases (oxygen and carbon dioxide) between inhaled air and the pulomnary circulation of blood
  151. ventral
    referring to the fron of the body. a synonym for anterior
  152. ventricles
    the two lower chambers of the heart. there is a right ventricle (which sends oxygen-poor blood to the lungs) and a left ventricle (which sends oxygen-rich blood to the body)
  153. venule
    the smallest kind of vein
  154. vertebrae
    the 33 bones of the spinal column
  155. voluntary muscle
    muscle that can be consciously controlled
  156. whithe blood cells
    components of the blood. they producesubstances that help the body fight infection
  157. xiphoid process
    the inferior portion of the sternum
  158. zygomatic arches
    bones that form the structure of the cheeks