Chapter 5

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Chapter 5
2013-03-01 20:18:04
What Life Biology 120 Jay Phelan Chapter

Key terms
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  1. DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)
    • is a nucleic acid, a macro-molecule that stores information. It consists of individual units called nucleotides, which have three components: a molecule of sugar, a phosphate group(containing four oxygen atoms bound to a phosphorusatom), and a nitrogen-containing molecule called a base.
    • The physical structure of DNA is frequently described as a“double helix.”
  2. Code
    • detail instructions for the building of the organism.
    • DNA code a sequence of bases AGTACGAGTCAGCTCC
    • the full set of DNA present in an individual organism.
    • In eukaryotes, this information can be found in the nucleus of almost every cell.
    • In prokaryotes, including all bacteria, the information is contained within circular pieces of DNA
  4. Chromosome
    • Rather than being one super-long DNA strand, eukaryotic DNA exists as many smaller, more manageable pieces
    • One or more unique pieces of DNA—circular in prokaryotes,linear in eukaryotes—that together make up an organism's genome.Chromosomes vary in length and can consist of hundreds of millions of base pairs.
  5. GENE
    is a sequence of bases in a DNA molecule that carries the information necessary for producing a functional product, usually a polypeptide (protein) or RNA molecule
  6. Alleles
    • Different versions of a gene that code for the same trait.
    • Example: eye color
  7. gene expression
    the production of the protein that the gene's sequence codes for
  8. gene regulation
    • the question weather a gene is turned on.
    • producing its protein product
    • or tured off.
  9. 5 tools of Biotechnology
    • Chop
    • Amplify
    • Insert
    • grow
    • identify

    Can an insect get ID?
  10. restriction enzymes
    they only have one specific function and that is to cut DNA into small peices