Ch 7 Biology

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hchristensen
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204346
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Ch 7 Biology
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2013-03-01 21:10:22
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Questions from Ch 7 Biology for Hi-Q
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  1. Cell division in prokaryotes takes places in two stages, which make up what?
    simple cell cycle
  2. What is the process of the cell splitting called?
    binary fission
  3. As the growing plasma membrane of DNA pushes inward, the cell is constricted in two, which forms two what?
    daughter cells
  4. What is a single, long DNA molecule packaged with proteins into a compact shape called?
    chromosome
  5. What is the mechanism of cell division that occurs in an organism's nonreproductive cells called?
    mitosis
  6. What are an organism's nonreproductive cells called?
    somatic cells
  7. What process divides the DNA in cells that participate in sexual reproduction?
    meiosis
  8. What are the cells that participate in sexual reproduction called?
    germ cells
  9. The events that prepare the eukaryotic cell for division and the division process itself constitute what?
    complex cell cycle
  10. What is the period between cell divisions called?
    interphase
  11. What is the cell cycle phase during which the chromosomes condense, the nuclear envelope breaks down, and the spindle forms called?
    prophase
  12. What is the cell cycle phase during which the chromosomes line up on the central plane of the cell called?
    metaphase
  13. What is the cell cycle phase during which the centromeres divide, and the chromatids move toward opposite poles called?
    anaphase
  14. What is the cell cycle phase during which the chromosomes uncoil, and a new nuclear envelope forms called?
    telophase
  15. What is the cell cycle phase during which the cytoplasm of the cell is cleaved in half called?
    cytokinesis
  16. Chromosomes exist in somatic cells as pairs, which are called what?
    • homologous chromosomes
    • homologues
  17. What are cells that have two of each type of chromosome called?
    diploid cells
  18. What are two identical copies of homologues called?
    sister chromosomes
  19. What is the special linkage site called that joins the sister chromosomes together?
    centromere
  20. What is a complex of DNA and protein that chromosomes are composed of called?
    chromatin
  21. What are proteins with positive charges called?
    histones
  22. Every 200 nucleotides, the DNA duplex is coiled around a core of eight histone proteins, forming what complex?
    nucleosome
  23. What is the process during which chromosomes replicate and then begin to wind up tightly called?
    condensation
  24. What is a network of protein cables called?
    spindle
  25. What is a disk of protein bound to the centromere to which microtubules attach during cell division, linking chromatids to the spindle called?
    kinetochore
  26. What is another name for mitosis?
    karyokinesis
  27. What is the site around the cell's circumference, where the cytoplasm is being progressively pinched inward by the decreasing diameter of the actin belt called?
    cleavage furrow
  28. What is a growth disorder of cells?
    cancer
  29. What is a cluster of cells that constantly expands in size called?
    tumor
  30. What are cells that leave the tumor and spread throughout the body called?
    metastases
  31. What is damage to DNA called?
    mutation
  32. What kind of genes encode proteins that stimulate cell division?
    proto-oncogenes
  33. Mutated proto-oncogenes become cancer-causing genes called what?
    oncogenes
  34. What is the second class of cancer-causing genes called?
    tumor-suppressor genes
  35. What are eggs and sperm called?
    gametes
  36. An egg and a sperm fuse together to form what single cell?
    zygote
  37. What is the fusion of gametes to form a new cell called?
    • fertilization
    • syngamy
  38. What is the term for one set of cells?
    haploid
  39. What is reproduction that involves the alternation of meiosis and fertilization called?
    sexual reproduction
  40. What is reproduction that doesn't involve the fusion of gametes called?
    asexual reproduction
  41. What are the cells that will eventually undergo meiosis to produce gametes that are set aside early in the course of development called?
    germ-line cells
  42. What is the first of the two divisions of meiosis that serves to separate the two versions of each chromosome called?
    meiosis I
  43. What is the second of the two divisions of meiosis that serves to separate the two replicas of each version called?
    meiosis II
  44. What is the process during which DNA is exchanged between the two non-sister chromatids of homologous chromosomes called?
    crossing over
  45. What is the principle that segregation of alternative alleles at one locus into gametes is independent of the segregation o alleles at other loci called?
    independent assortment
  46. Sister chromatids are held together by what special proteins?
    cohesin proteins
  47. What is the process of forming these complexes of homologous chromosomes called?
    synapsis
  48. What is the development of an adult from an unfertilized egg called?
    parthenogenesis

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