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for the principel of "reflex before cortical control" what's the early and matured responses?
- early: ATNR, Moro
- matured: limbs move indep of head
- asymmetrical tonic neck reflex
- turn head to side, and the limbs on nose-side extend while those on occiput side flex
for the principel of "total body movement before issolted movement (dissociation)" what's the early and matured responses
- early: upper extremity swiping; prone kicking w both legs
- matured: grasping skills; prone flex/ext knee
for the principel of "proximal control before distal control" what's the early and matured responses
- early: shoulder and hip stabilility
- matured: elbow, wrist, hand, knee ankle stability
for the principel of "cephalic before caudal" what's the early and matured responses
- early: shoulder control & stability
- mature: hip control & stability
cephalocaudal direction of body control by quarters (quarters of the first year???)
- first quarter: head control
- second: arms & upper trunk
- 3rd: lower trunk & pelvis
- last: mobility & control of lower legs, and upright postural control
which antigravity control comes first?
extensor before flexor (can lift head in prone before in supine)
wt bearing on flex/ext extremities - which comes first?
flexed - prone on elbow comes before prone on extended arms
which part of hands get control first?
- med then lat
- ulnar fingers before index and thumb
raking emerges when?
pincer grasp emerges when?
when does handedness appear?
- around 2 yrs old, gets established at 3-4 yrs
- - if it comes in before 1 yr, indicates motor impairment of opp arm
7 reflexes present at birth
Moro reflex - when does it appear? when does it disappear
- 28-32 weeks gestation
- 4-5 months
Moro/Startle reflex - what triggers it?
being startled - noise, change in light, change in body pos, falling
Moro/Startle reflex - what is it?
- UEs abd, extend, supinate
3 troubles if the Moro/Startle reflex persists (past it's usual time for integration at 4-5 months)
- throws infant off balance
- excess extensor tone developmen
- associated w CP
rooting reflex - what is it?
tactile stim to cheek makes head turn to that side and mouth opens
prepares the baby to suck
sucking reflex - begins when?
32 week gestation, fully developed by week 36
sucking reflex - integrates when?
how to trigger the sucking reflex?
- stim the top of the mouth
- fyi - sucking promotes flexion of body
palmer grasp reflex, begins when?
28 weeks gestation
palmer grasp reflex - what is it?
stim the palm and the baby grasps, can't volitionally release
when is palmar grasp integrated?
when vol grasp develops - by 6 months
plantar grasp reflex - appears when?
28 weeks gestation
plantar grasp reflex - what is it?
apply firm pressure to base of toes, and the toes will flex down
when does the plantar grasp reflex integrate?
when kid starts walking
babinski - normal response in babies?when does it integrate?
- toe fanning & big toe dorsiflexing
- normal up to 2 years, may disappear by 1 year
- (it disappears when the system becomes more myelinated)
step or walk reflex - begins when? integrated when?
- begins at 37 weeks gestation
- integrated at months
what is the step/walk reflex?
- alternating, rhythmical, coordinated steps
- elicit it by supporting infant upright with feet on ground - support it and guide it forward
ATNR - appear when? integrates when?
what do you think of persisten neck reflexes at 12-24 months?
- suggests limited motor control and possibly decreased indep amb
"neck righting on the body" - appears when? integrated when?
- 34 weeks gestation
- 4-6 months
neck righting on the body - what is it?
- pt supine, head midline - turn the head to side, and entire body will turn in this direction
- (sounds like it's really body righting on the head)
landau reflex - appears when? integrates when?
what's the Landau reflex?
hold an infant prone w yr hands under chest and stomach, and the head, neck, arms should extend so the kid's in a superman pose, everything raised above the stomach's horizontal
symmetrical tonic neck reflex - what is it?
flex/ext neck, legs move you away from where you're looking, arms do the opposite
- flex neck: LE ext, UE flex
- ext neck: LE flex, UE ext
when is the symmetrical tonic neck reflex (STNR) present?
4th - 7th month
parachute reflex - present when?
- appear 6-9 months
- stays forever
cortical thumb - appears and disappears when?
- found in normally developing infants
- resolves 1.5-7 months
9 skeletal characteristics of neonates
- medial femoral torsion
- femoral anteversion
- femoral coxa valga
- shallow acetabulum
- genu varum
- tiba varum
- tibial torsion
- calcaneal & forefoot varus
- metatarsus adductus