carbohydrates

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Author:
hannahshort
ID:
204357
Filename:
carbohydrates
Updated:
2013-03-19 23:55:47
Tags:
carbs fiber fat
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Description:
test 3
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  1. main purpose of carbohydrates
    to provide energy
  2. can carbohydrates be stored in the body?
    yes.
  3. classifications of carbohydrates
    • simple sugars
    • complex sugars
    • trisaccharides
    • polysaccharides
  4. simple sugars
    sugars that are easily broken down to be absorbed by the body
  5. another name for simple sugar
    monosaccharide
  6. examples of simple sugar/monosaccharides
    • glucose
    • fructose
  7. complex sugars
    formed by combination of 2 molecules of monosaccharides
  8. another name for complex sugars
    disaccharides
  9. examples of complex sugars/disaccharides
    • sucrose
    • maltose
    • lactose
  10. trisaccharides
    one molecule each of glucose, galactose, and fructose
  11. example of trisaccharide
    raffinose
  12. polysaccharides
    made up of numerous molecules of simple sugars
  13. examples of polysaccharides
    • dextrin
    • starch
    • cellulose
    • glycogen
  14. primary site of digestion occurs in the
    intestine

    (some digestion of carbs occurs in the mouth by enzyme salivary amylase)
  15. starch, glycogen, and disaccharides are broken down to
    monosaccharides

    (must be broken down to monos before can be absorbed)
  16. most of the carbs in pet rations are absorbed as
    glucose
  17. these two things absorbed are converted to glucose
    galactose and fructose

    (everything broken down to glucose)
  18. entry of blood glucose into most body cells is dependent upon
    insulin (from the pancreas)
  19. entry of blood glucose into these are not insulin dependent
    • RBC
    • cell of liver
    • central nervous system
  20. normal value blood glucose
    80-120 mg/dl
  21. hypoglycemia
    decrease in blood glucose
  22. causes of hypoglycemia
    pancreatic dysfunction may cause excessive insulin production which decreases blood glucose
  23. affects most dogs
    type 1
  24. affects most cats
    type 2
  25. hyperglycemia
    increase in blood glucose
  26. causes of hyperglycemia
    Diabetes mellitus: deficiency in insulin production results in hyperglycemia
  27. signs of hyperglycemia
    • glucosuria: glucose in urine
    • ketonemia: ketones in blood
    • polyuria
    • polydipsia
    • extreme weight loss
  28. hyperglycemia most commonly seen in:
    middle aged (6-8), obese, altered, female dogs

    males more prone in cats

    small breed dogs treated as children
  29. insulin comes from the 
    pancreas
  30. lipemia
    fat in the blood

    (let blood sit for 15 min. if white line appears at the top, animal ate something)
  31. fiber
    carbohydrates whose bonds are resistant to the action of gastrointestinal/ digestive enzymes

    (hard for animals to digest with exception of ruminants and horses)
  32. main fiber carbohydrates
    • cellulose
    • hemicellulose
    • pectin
    • lignin
  33. cellulose
    forms skeleton of most plant structures, can be digested by ruminants, but indigestible by simple stomached animals. (in ruminants converted to fatty acids to be used as energy)
  34. hemicellulose
    second most abundant compound found in plants
  35. pectin
    sugar polymer which may have an effect on controlling frothy bloat. (helps reduce fermentation in gut: bloat in cattle, colic in horse)
  36. lignin
    an almost indigestible polysaccharide found in wood, hulls, and straw
  37. source of fiber in most pet foods
    cereal grains and milling by-products
  38. well known effects of fiber: (in humans)
    • prevention of constipation
    • bulking agent to promote colonic peristalsis
    • water absorbing properties
    • increased fiber may reduce caloric intake while giving a "full" feeling
  39. lack of fiber in humans has been associated with such diseases as
    • varicose veins
    • hemorrhoids
    • diverticulitis
    • colonic cancer and polyps
    • coronary artery disease

    (fiber may help to reduce absorption of carcinogens, steroids, and other toxic materials by speeding up intestinal transit leaving less time for absorption)
  40. gluconeogenesis
    • body is deprived of glucose
    • liver cells use fat or proteins to synthesize new glucose for the blood

    (this occurs when blood glucose levels are low (below 60) or when insufficient glucose is entering the cells and glycogen stores are depleted as in Diabetes Mellitus)
  41. fats are
    complex molecules broken down by the digestive system into smaller molecules known as fatty acids.
  42. fatty acids can be used as 
    • source of fuel for energy
    • hormone production
    • skin and coat oils
    • membranes
    • body cell parts
  43. four main fat functions
    • supply energy
    • palatability
    • essential fatty acids
    • carry fat soluble vitamins (A,E,D,K)
  44. essential fatty acids
    • linoleic acid (plant source)
    • linolenic acid (plant source)
    • arachidonic acid (animal source)
  45. most potent source of essential fatty acids for dogs
    vegetable oil
  46. cats have dietary requirement for this essential fatty acid derived from aniamls
    arachidonic acid

    (fish good source)
  47. fats&fatty acids are normal components of hair and skin. deficiency=
    • hair becomes dry, coarse 
    • skin dry, thickened, flakey
  48. sources of fat
    • lard
    • horse fat
    • poultry fat
    • cottonseed oil
    • vegetable oil
    • fish oil
  49. true animal fat
    lard
  50. fat: cal/gm
    fats are concentrated forms of energy 9 cal/gm
  51. fats are converted to what two things in the small intestine?
    • glycerol
    • fatty acids
  52. fats are water soluble or insoluble?
    insoluble
  53. lipase breaks down
    fat

    (into glycerol and fatty acids)
  54. digestion and absorption of fat complete within
    2 hours

    (absorption occurs in small intestine)
  55. higher fat absorption produces the following in the blood
    • slowed circulation of blood (feeling sluggish after eat high fat meal)
    • shortened clotting time
    • decrease in sedimentation rate (separation of blood)
  56. increased lipase production by pancreas can lead to
    pancreatitis 
  57. Pancreatitis
    • if digestive enzymes become activated within the pancreas and are not released they will begin digesting the pancreas itself
    • causes severe inflammation
    • some animals have predisposition
    • classified as acute or chronic

    "holiday syndrome" feeding table scraps at family gatherings
  58. symptoms of pancreatitis
    • abdominal pain (tight to the touch..painful)
    • vomiting
    • elevated pancreatic enzymes
    • diarrhea
  59. causes of pancreatitis
    • hyperlipemia
    • obesity
    • infectious disease
    • trauma (abdominal..ex:hit by car)
  60. laboratory analysis for pancreatitis
    • looking for:
    • elevated lipase and amylase

    • (lipase breakdown: fat
    • amylase breakdown: starch)
  61. treatment for pancreatiti
    • NPO- reduce inflammatory action of pancreas
    • intravenous fluids- dehydration
    • anti-inflammatory drugs
  62. dietary management for pancreatitis
    • diet low in fat
    • no table food
  63. dental formula: cat
    2 (I 3/3 C 1/1 P 3/2 M 1/1) 30
  64. dental formula: cattle
    2 (I 0/3 C 0/0 P 3/3 M3/3) 30
  65. dental formula: dog
    2 (I 3/3 C 1/1 P 4/4 M 2/3) 42
  66. dental formula: horse
    2 (I 3/3 C 1/1 P 3-4/3 M 3/3) 40 or 42

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