PSY final

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shearne
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PSY final
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2013-03-01 22:20:45
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psych 458 final
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  1. behavioral bliss point
    the preferred distribution of an organism's activities before an instrumental conditioning procedure is introduced that sets constraints and limitations on response allocation
  2. consummatory response theory
    a theory that assumes that species-typical consummatory responses (eating, drinking, and the like) are the critical feature of reinforcers
  3. demand curve
    the relation between how much of a commodity is purchased and the price of the commodity
  4. differential probability principle
    a principe that assumes that reinforcement depends on how much more likely the organism is to perform the reinforcer response than the instrumental response before an instrumental conditioning procedure is introduced
  5. disequilibrium model
    model used in applied behavioral analysis that assumes that reinforcement effects are produced by restricting access to the reinforcer response below the rate of this response during a nonconstrained free baseline period
  6. elasticity of deman
    the degree to which price influences the consumption or purchase of a commodity. if price has a large effect on consumption, elasticity of demand is high. if price has a small effect on consumption, elasticity of demand is low
  7. minimum-deviation model
    a model of instrumental behavior, according to which participants respond to a response-reinforcer contingency in a manner that gets them as close as possible to their behavioral bliss point
  8. premack principle
    same as differential probability principle
  9. response-derivation hypothesis
    an explanation of reinforcement according to which restricting access to a response below its baseline rate of occurrence (response deprivation) is sufficient to make the opportunity to perform that response an effective positive reinforcer
  10. behavioral momentum
    the susceptibility of responding to disruption by manipulation such as pre-session feeding, delivery of free food, or a change in the schedule of reinforcement
  11. consolidation
    the establishment of a memory in relatively permanent form so that it is available for retrieval a long time after original acquisition
  12. continuous reinforcement
    a schedule of reinforcement in which every occurrence of the instrumental response produces the reinforcer. abbreviated CRF
  13. discrimination hypothesis
    an explanation of the partial reinforcement extinction effect according to which extinction is slower after partial reinforcement than continuous reinforcement because the onset of extinction is more difficult to detect following partial reinforcement
  14. extinction (in classical conditioning)
    reduction of a learned response that occurs because the conditioned stimulus is no longer paired with the unconditioned stimulus. also, the procedure of repeatedly presenting a conditioned stimulus without the unconditioned stimulus
  15. extinction (in instrumental conditioning)
    reduction of the instrumental response that occurs because the response is no longer followed by the reinforcer. also, the procedure of no longer reinforcing the instrumental response
  16. forgetting
    a reduction of a learned response that occurs because of the passage of time, not because of particular experiences
  17. frustration
    an aversive emotional reaction that results from the unexpected absence of reinforcement
  18. frustration theory
    a theory of the partial reinforcement extinction effect, according to which extinction is retarded after partial reinforcement because the instrumental response become conditioned to the anticipation of frustrative non reward
  19. intermittent reinforcement
    a schedule of reinforcement in which only some of the occurrences of the instrumental response are reinforced. the instrumental response is reinforced occasionally, or intermittently. aka partial reinforcement
  20. overtraining extinction effect
    less persistence of instrumental behavior in extinction following extensive training with reinforcement (overtraining) than following only moderate levels of reinforcement training. the effect is most prominent with continuous reinforcement
  21. magnitude reinforcement extinction effect
    less persistence of instrumental behavior in extinction following training with a large reinforcer than following training with a small or moderate reinforcer. the effect is most prominent with continuous reinforcement
  22. partial reinforcement extinction effect (PREE)
    the term used to describe greater persistence in instrumental responding in extinction after partial (or intermittent) reinforcement training than after continuous reinforcement training
  23. reinstatement
    recovery of excitatory responding to an extinguished stimulus produced by exposure to the unconditioned stimulus
  24. renewal
    recovery of excitatory responding to an extinguished stimulus produced by a shift away from the contextual cues that were present during extinction
  25. sequential theory
    a theory of the partial reinforcement extinction effect according to which extinction is retarded after partial reinforcement because the instrumental response becomes conditioned to the memory of non reward
  26. conditional relation
    a relation in which the significance of one stimulus or event depends on the status of another stimulus
  27. configueal-cue approach
    an approach to the analysis of stimulus control which assumes that organisms respond to a compound stimulus as an integral whole rather than a collection of separate and independent stimulus elements (compare with stimulus element approach)
  28. discriminative stimulus
    a stimulus that controls the performance of instrumental behavior because it signals the availability (or nonavailability) of reinforcement
  29. excitatory generalization gradient
    a gradient of responding that is observed then organisms are tested with the S+ from a discrimination procedure and with stimuli that increasingly differ from the S+. typically the highest level of responding occurs to stimuli similar to the S+; progressively less responding occurs to stimuli that increasingly differ from the S+. Thus, the gradient has an inverted-U shape
  30. facilitation
    a procedure in which one cue designates when another cue will be reinforced. aka occasion setting
  31. inhibitory generalization gradient
    a gradient of responding observed when organisms are tested with the S- from a discrimination procedure and with stimuli that increasingly differ from the S-. the lowest level of responding occurs to stimuli similar to the S-; progressively more responding occurs to stimuli that increasingly differ from S-. thus, the gradients has a U shape
  32. intradimensional discrimination
    a discrimination between stimuli that differ only in terms of the value of one stimulus feature, such as color, brightness, or pitch
  33. modulator
    a stimulus that signals the relation between two other events. the nature of a binary relation may be determined by a third event, called a modulator
  34. multiple schedule of reinforcement
    a procedure in which different reinforcement schedules are in effect in the presence of different stimuli presented in succession. generally, each stimulus comes to evoke a pattern of responding that corresponds to whatever reinforcement schedule is in effect during that stimulus
  35. occasion setting
    same as facilitation
  36. overshadowing
    interference with the conditioning of a stimulus because of the simultaneous presence of another stimulus that is easier to condition
  37. peak-shift effect
    a displacement of the highest rate of responding in a stimulus generalization gradient away form the S+ in a direction opposite the S-
  38. stimulus discrimination
    differential responding in the presence of two or more stimuli
  39. stimulus discrimination procedure in classical conditioning
    a classical conditioning procedure in which one stimulus (the CS+) is paired with the unconditioned stimulus on some trials and another stimulus (the CS-) is presented without the unconditioned stimulus on other trails. as a result of the procedure the CS+ comes to elicit a conditioned response and the CS- comes to inhibit this response
  40. stimulus discrimination procedure in instrumental conditioning
    a procedure in which reinforcement for responding is available whenever one stimulus (S+, or Sd) is present and not available whenever another stimulus (the S-, S^) is present
  41. stimulus-element approach
    an approach to the analysis of control by compound stimuli which assumes that participants respond to a compound stimulus in terms of the stimulus elements that make up the compound (compare with configural-cue)
  42. stimulus equivalence
    responding to physically distinct stimuli as if they were the same because of common prior experiences with the stimuli
  43. stimulus generalization
    responding to test stimuli that are different from the cues that were present during training
  44. stimulus generalization gradient
    a gradient of responding that is observed if participants are tested with stimuli that increasingly differ from the stimulus that was present during training
  45. acquired-drive
    a source of motivation for instrumental behavior caused by the presentation of a stimulus that was previously conditioned with a primary, or unconditioned, reinforcer
  46. avoidance
    an instrumental conditioning procedure in which the participant's behavior prevents the delivery of an aversive stimulus
  47. avoidance trial
    a trial in a discriminated avoidance procedure in which an avoidance response is made and prevents the delivery of the aversive stimulus
  48. discriminated avoidance
    an avoidance conditioning procedure in which occurrences of the aversive stimulus are signaled by a conditioned stimulus. responding during the conditioned stimulus terminates the CS and prevents the delivery of the aversive unconditioned stimulus. aka signaled avoidance
  49. discriminative punishment
    a procedure in which responding is punished in the presence of a particular stimulus and not punished in the absence of that stimulus
  50. escape trial
    a trial during discriminated avoidance training in which the required avoidance response is not made and the aversive unconditioned stimulus is presented. performance of the instrumental response during the aversive stimulus results in termination of the aversive stimulus. thus, the organism is able to escape from the aversive stimulus
  51. escape from fear (EFF) procedure
    situation in which subjects can learn an instrumental response to escape from or terminate a stimulus that elicits fear. escape from fear provides a coping mechanism for individuals suffering from excessive fear
  52. flooding
    a procedure for extinguishing avoidance behavior in which the conditioned stimulus is presented while the participant is prevented from making the avoidance response
  53. free-operant avoidance
    same as nodiscriminated avoidance
  54. nondiscriminated avoidance
    an avoidance conditioning procedure in which occurrences of the aversive stimulus are not signaled by an external stimulus. in the absence of avoidance responding, the aversive stimulus is presented periodically, as set by the S-S interval. each occurrence of the avoidance response creates (or resets) a period of safety determined by the S-R interval during which the aversive stimulus is not presented. aka free-operant avoidance; originally called Sidman avoidance
  55. overcorrection
    a procedure for discouraging behavior in which the participant is not only required to correct or rectify a mistake but is also required to go beyond that by, for example, extensively practicing the correct response alternative
  56. predatory imminence
    the perceived likelihood of being attacked by a predator. different species typical defense responses occur in the face of different degrees of predatory imminence
  57. punishment
    an instrumental conditioning procedure in which there is a positive contingency between the instrumental response and an aversive stimulus. if the participant performs the instrumental response, it receives the aversive stimulus; if the participant does not perform the instrumental response, it does not receive the aversive stimulus
  58. R-S interval
    the interval between the occurrence of an avoidance response and the next scheduled presentation of the aversive stimulus in a nodiscriminated avoidance procedure. thus, the R-S interval sets the duration of safety created by each avoidance response in a nondiscriminated avoidance procedure
  59. response prevention
    blocking the opportunity to make the avoidance response to that the subject is exposed to a fear stimulus without being able to escape fro it. usually used in connection with flooding
  60. safety signal
    a stimulus that signals the absence of an aversive event
  61. shock-frequency reduction
    a hypothesis according to which reduction in the frequency of shock serves to reinforce avoidance behavior
  62. shuttle avoidance
    a type of avoidance conditioning procedure in which the required instrumental response consists of real going back and forth (shuttling) between two sides of an experimental apparatus
  63. signaled avoidance
    same as discriminated avoidance
  64. species-specific defense reactions
    species typical responses animals perform in an aversive situation. the responses may involve freezing, fleeing, or fighting
  65. S-S interval
    the interval between successive presentations of the aversive stimulus in a no discriminated avoidance procedure when the avoidance response is not performed
  66. time out
    a period during which the opportunity to obtain positive reinforcement is removed. this may involve removal of the participant from the situation where reinforcers may be obtained
  67. two-process theory of avoidance
    a theory originally developed to explain discriminated avoidance learning that presumes the operation of two mechanisms: classical conditioning of fear to the warning signal or CS, and instrumental reinforcement of the avoidance response through termination of the warning signal and consequent fear reduction

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