Card Set Information
Psychology chp1 research methods
Research methods, scientific method, chapter 1
What is an independent variable?
A variable that is
by the experimenter
What is a dependent variable?
A dependent variable is the property that is
. It relies on the independent variable
What is an extraneous variable?
What is a confounding variable?
A variable that has
had a systematic effect
on the value of the DV
What is a hypothesis?
A hypothesis is a testable prediction which states how changes in the IV will affect the DV
What is random sampling?
When the whole
population has an equal chance
of being chosen as participants
What is stratified sampling?
When the effects of a certain
variable can be eliminated as a possible confound
in an experiment.
Done through dividing population into subgroups and then randomly selecting participants
What is random allocation?
When the participants have the
of being in the
What are advantages and disadvantages of a repeated measures design?
: confounds caused by "participant variables" will be eliminated Also possible to use less participants
: Participants may perform better "practise" or do worse, "boredom, fatigue"
What is repeated measures design?
When the participants are
both in the E-group and C-group
What is the matched participants design?
Where the researcher is able to identify a variable that is likely to confound and eliminate this variable.
Participants are ranked in accordance and allocated in respective groups
Advantages and disadvantages of the matched participants design
: The variable in the which the participants are "matched" will not affect the experiment
: It is time consuming and expensive. If one of the pair drops out, the other must be eliminated
What is the independent groups design?
Allocates participants in c-group or e-group at random
Advantages and disadvantages of the independent groups design
: Can be done at once, drop outs are unlikely
: Requires large number of participants to ensure the it is representative of the population.
What is the placebo effect and how can it be controlled?
effect refers to the participants' behaviour being influenced by expectations of how they should behave.
It can be elminated by using a
single blind procedure
where the participant is unaware whether they are in the c-group or e-group
What is the experimenter effect and how can it be eliminated
Refers to the outcome of the experiment being unintentionally or intentionally influenced by the experimenter
Can be eliminated by the
double blind procedure
where neither the experimenter or participant know which group they are allocated in
What is a possible confound?
Non standardised instructions or procedures. The only difference between the control and experimental group must only be the IV