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What is an independent variable?
A variable that is purposely manipulated by the experimenter
What is a dependent variable?
A dependent variable is the property that is being measured. It relies on the independent variable
What is an extraneous variable?
Variables that may cause an unwanted affect on the experiment
What is a confounding variable?
A variable that has had a systematic effect on the value of the DV
What is a hypothesis?
A hypothesis is a testable prediction which states how changes in the IV will affect the DV
What is random sampling?
When the whole population has an equal chance of being chosen as participants
What is stratified sampling?
- When the effects of a certain variable can be eliminated as a possible confound in an experiment.
- Done through dividing population into subgroups and then randomly selecting participants
What is random allocation?
When the participants have the same chance of being in the E-group or the C-group
What are advantages and disadvantages of a repeated measures design?
- Advantages: confounds caused by "participant variables" will be eliminated Also possible to use less participants
- Disadvantages: Participants may perform better "practise" or do worse, "boredom, fatigue"
What is repeated measures design?
When the participants are both in the E-group and C-group
What is the matched participants design?
- Where the researcher is able to identify a variable that is likely to confound and eliminate this variable.
- Participants are ranked in accordance and allocated in respective groups
Advantages and disadvantages of the matched participants design
- Advantages: The variable in the which the participants are "matched" will not affect the experiment
- Disadvantage: It is time consuming and expensive. If one of the pair drops out, the other must be eliminated
What is the independent groups design?
Allocates participants in c-group or e-group at random
Advantages and disadvantages of the independent groups design
- Advantages: Can be done at once, drop outs are unlikely
- Disadvantages: Requires large number of participants to ensure the it is representative of the population.
What is the placebo effect and how can it be controlled?
- The placebo effect refers to the participants' behaviour being influenced by expectations of how they should behave.
- It can be elminated by using a single blind procedure where the participant is unaware whether they are in the c-group or e-group
What is the experimenter effect and how can it be eliminated
- Refers to the outcome of the experiment being unintentionally or intentionally influenced by the experimenter
- Can be eliminated by the double blind procedure where neither the experimenter or participant know which group they are allocated in
What is a possible confound?
Non standardised instructions or procedures. The only difference between the control and experimental group must only be the IV