ch. 3 applied psych cjs

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ch. 3 applied psych cjs
2010-05-23 18:32:17
crim applied psych

ch 3
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  1. positivism
    the scientific approach has equal validity and promise in the study of humanity and society
  2. homeostasis
    normal state
  3. apotropaic punishments
    actions intended to ward off evil spirits
  4. corporal punishment
    physical pain
  5. naturalistic explanations
    • "nature of things"
    • later refined as science
  6. physiognomy
    practioners of physiognomy make judgements about individuals' mental qualities, character, and personality based on external phycial characteristics, esp facial features
  7. fragments
    classification based on certain physical qualities
  8. phrenology
    using a skull's shape and protuberances, with the latter supposedly suggesting either latent or manifest criminality
  9. cranispcopy
    study of the human skull
  10. natural selection
    nature specifically eliminated a species' survive to reproduce.
  11. anthropometrys
    branch of anthropology based on taking body measurements to determine individual differences
  12. atavism
    • Lombroso
    • crime derived from arrest evolution
  13. stigmata
    atavistic man had peculiar physical characteristics
  14. generation theory
    arguing that socially problematic groups inherited their tendency toward verious forms of devoultion (backward evolution).
  15. eugenics
    the practice of ridding the human species of unfit biological stock largely through sterilization, life sentences in prison, or death.
  16. embryonics
    study of criminal man through embroys
  17. mesomorphs
    • muscalr bodies
    • aggressive tendencies
  18. somatotype
    specific body type
  19. ectomorphs
    • fragile, skinny bodies
    • small faces,
    • introversive tendencies
  20. endomorphs
    soft and round bodies
  21. fig 3.1 and fig 3.2 and 3.2
  22. twin study
    twin studies assume that criminal activities of identical twins are more similar that those found in fraternal twins, then hereditary factors are the cause
  23. adoption study
    compare the crime and delinquency rates of biological and adoptive parents
  24. karyotype studies
    address the nubmer and type of chromosomes in individuals
  25. xyy male
    • is usually over six feet tall, exhibits low mental functioning
    • suffers from acute acne
    • often clumsy
  26. biocriminologists
    criminologists who see to understand crime using biological explanations
  27. nature-plus-nurture model
    allows for the effects of free will
  28. twinkies defense
    murder of harvey milk blamed murders on consumption of too many twinkies
  29. neurotoxicity hypothesis (NH)
    holds that chemical imbalances in heavy metals and other toxins may contribute significantly to antisocial behavior by disrupting the normal functioning of a person's brain chemistry
  30. PMS defense
    • an extension of the hormonal imbalance theme.
    • behavior brought on by menses that is
    • irrational, bizarre, or agressive
  31. major criticisms of biolochemistry of crime
    • 1. methodological issues
    • 2. causal ordering problems
    • 3. overstated cases
  32. table 3.1