Watch animals or humans behave in their natural environment.
Pro: realistic picture of behavior
Con: Observer effect; Observer bias & each setting is different and unique
What is observer effect?
It is when the ones being observed behave differently then they normally would because they are aware of being observed
What is observer bias?
It is when the observer sees what they want to see.
Descriptive Research: Laboratory Observation
Watching animals or humans behave in a laboratory setting.
Pro: Control of environment; allows use of special equipment
Con: Artificial situation may result in artificial behavior
Descriptive Research: Case Study
A study of one individual in great detail.
Pro: Tremendous amount of detail.
Con: Cannot apply to others.
Descriptive Research: Survey
Researchers will ask a series of questions about the topic under study.
Pro: The ability to research many people.
Con: Potential low response rate.
Does correlation prove causation? Why?
The events or statistics that happen to coincide with each other are causally related. The reality is that cause and effect can be indirect, or due to confounding variables, and so the assumption of causation is false when the only evidence available is simple correlation.
What is positive correlation?
When variables are related in the same direction.
As one increases, the other increases; as one decreases, the other decreases.
What is negative correlation?
When variables are related in opposite directions.
As one increases, the other decreases.
Psychology Research: Experiment
A deliberate manipulation of a variable to see if corresponding changes in behavior result, allowing the determination of cause-and-effect relationships.
Independent Variable (IV)
The variable in the experiment that is manipulated by the experimenter.
IV: violent tv
Dependent Variable (DV)
The variable in an experiment that represents the measureable response or behavior of the subjects in the experiment.
DV: Aggressive play
What are the steps in the Scientific Method?
1. Preceive the question.
2. Form a hypothesis (tenative explanation of phenomenon)
3. Test the hypothesis.
4. Draw conclusions.
5. Report results to allow others to try to replicate. (Demonstrates reliability.)