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The meaning of psychology what do we study and why?
- Psychology is the scientific study of the behavior of individuals and their mental processes.
- Psychology studies the human mind and its functions to understand behaviors.
What are the four goals of psychology?
Four Goals of Psychology: Describe
- To answer the question:
- What is happening?
Four Goals of Psychology: Explain(ation)
- To answer:
- Why is it happening?
- Theory - general explanation of a set of observations or facts
Four Goals of Psychology: Predict(ion)
- To answer:
- Will it happen again?
Four Goals of Psychology: Control
- To answer:
- How can it be changed?
Classical Theory of Psychology: Structuralism
The structuralist approach focused on investigating the perception of vision, hearing and touch through the systematic observation of experience. They studied the ‘content of consciousnesses’.
Classical Theory of Psychology: Functionalism
- How the mind allows people to adapt, live, work, and play.
- Considered the effects of the physical and social environment on a person.
Classical Theory of Psychology: Gestalt
It maintains that the human eye sees objects in their entirety before perceiving their individual parts, suggesting the whole is greater than the sum of its parts.
Classical Theory of Psychology: Psychoanalysis
- The "talking therapy". Patients talked about their childhood with the intention to gain access to the unconsciousness of a person.
- Repressed urges/desires into unconscious or stressed childhood = nervous disorders
Classical Theory of Psychology: Behaviorism
- Focuses on only observable behaviorMust be directly seen and measured
Modern Theory of Psychology: Psychodynamic
- Founders: Sigmund Freud, Carl Jung
- Focused on the development of a sense of self & the discovery of other motivations behind a person's behavior other than sexual motivation
- Focuses on childhood experiences
- Relationship with therapist is primary
Modern Theory of Psychology: Behavioral
- Founders: B. F. Skinner, John B. Watson, Ivan Pavlov
- It aims to understanding motivation deals with drives, both learned and unlearned, and with incentives.
- Operant Conditioning of voluntary behavior; Reinforcement
What is Operant Conditioning?
It is a method of learning that occurs through rewards and punishments for behavior.
What is Reinforcement?
- It is any event that strengthens or increases the behavior it follows.
- [Positive: add to / Negative: removal of]
Modern Theory of Psychology: Cognitive
- Founder:Ulric (Dick) Neisser
- It is the branch of psychology that studies mental processes by focusing on memory, intelligence, perception, problem solving, and learning.
Modern Theory of Psychology: Humanistic
- Founders: Abraham Maslov, Carl Rogers
- Focuses on each individual's potential and stressed the importance of growth, self-actualization & the ability to become the best person they could be.
Modern Theory of Psychology: Sociocultural
- Founder: Bandura
- Focuses on the relationship between social behavior and culture.
- Also on the effect people have on one another.
Modern Theory of Psychology: Biopsychology
Attributes human and animal behavior to biological events occurring in the body, such as genetic influences, hormones, and the activity of the nervous system.
Modern Theory of Psychology: Evolutionary
- Focuses on the biological bases of universal mental characteristics that all humans share.
- Looks at the way the mind works and why it works as it does.
- Behavior is seen as having an adaptive or survival value.
What are the three types of psychological research?
- Descriptive - describes a behavior
- Correlation - find relationships btwn 2+ behaviors/variables
- Experiment - find a cause of behavior
Descriptive Research: Naturalistic
- Watch animals or humans behave in their natural environment.
- Pro: realistic picture of behavior
- Con: Observer effect; Observer bias & each setting is different and unique
What is observer effect?
It is when the ones being observed behave differently then they normally would because they are aware of being observed
What is observer bias?
It is when the observer sees what they want to see.
Descriptive Research: Laboratory Observation
- Watching animals or humans behave in a laboratory setting.
- Pro: Control of environment; allows use of special equipment
- Con: Artificial situation may result in artificial behavior
Descriptive Research: Case Study
- A study of one individual in great detail.
- Pro: Tremendous amount of detail.
- Con: Cannot apply to others.
Descriptive Research: Survey
- Researchers will ask a series of questions about the topic under study.
- Pro: The ability to research many people.
- Con: Potential low response rate.
Does correlation prove causation? Why?
- The events or statistics that happen to coincide with each other are causally related. The reality is that cause and effect can be indirect, or due to confounding variables, and so the assumption of causation is false when the only evidence available is simple correlation.
What is positive correlation?
- When variables are related in the same direction.
- As one increases, the other increases; as one decreases, the other decreases.
What is negative correlation?
- When variables are related in opposite directions.
- As one increases, the other decreases.
Psychology Research: Experiment
A deliberate manipulation of a variable to see if corresponding changes in behavior result, allowing the determination of cause-and-effect relationships.
Independent Variable (IV)
- The variable in the experiment that is manipulated by the experimenter.
- IV: violent tv
Dependent Variable (DV)
- The variable in an experiment that represents the measureable response or behavior of the subjects in the experiment.
- DV: Aggressive play
What are the steps in the Scientific Method?
- 1. Preceive the question.
- 2. Form a hypothesis (tenative explanation of phenomenon)
- 3. Test the hypothesis.
- 4. Draw conclusions.
- 5. Report results to allow others to try to replicate. (Demonstrates reliability.)