Psych220- CH 2 MIDTERM

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Psych220- CH 2 MIDTERM
2013-03-07 19:21:12

Midterm (Chapters 1 - 6). Chapter 2 study notes.
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  1. What are Neurons and what do they do?
    The basic cell that makes up the entire nervous system and which receives and sends messages within that system.
  2. Dendrites
    short fiber that conducts messages toward the cell body of the neuron
  3. Soma/Cell Body
    the cell body of the neuron that contains the nucleus
  4. Axon
    the long threadlike part of a nerve cell along which impulses are conducted from the cell body to other cells
  5. What is a synaptic knob?
    • It is at the end of the Axon Terminal.
    • The synaptic knob has synaptic vesicles w/ neurotransmitters inside them.
    • When a nerve impulse reaches this area, it triggers the release of neurotransmitters from the synaptic vesicles.
  6. What is a neurotransmitter?
    It is a chemical that is produced in a neuron that carries messages to other neurons.
  7. What is a synapse?
    the microscopic gap between the axon of one neuron and the dendrite of another
  8. Receptor sites - location and purpose
    a location on a receptor neuron into which a specific neurotransmitter fits like a key into a lock
  9. What is Reuptake?
    The sucking back up of neurotransmitters into the original firing synaptic knob to be stored and used for later.
  10. Acetylcholine
    • appears to be involved in learning and memory.
    • not enough = dementia, eg. Alzheimer's disease
  11. Serotonin
    • a neurotransmitter associated with arousal, sleep, appetite, moods, and emotions
    • not enough = depression
  12. Dopamine
    • A neurotransmitter associated with movement, attention, learning, and the brain’s pleasure and reward system.
    • too little: Parkinson's
    • too much: schizophrenia
  13. Endorphins
    involved in pain relief
  14. What is the Periperal Nervous System?
    • Divided into Somatic and Autonomic systems.
    • Allows communication between brain, spinal cord and muscles/glands.
  15. Somatic Nervous System
    • Consists of:
    • Sensory pathway: sends messages from sensory organs (skin, eyes, ears, etc.) to Central Nervous System
    • Motor pathway: messages from the Central Nervous System to voluntary muscles
  16. Autonomic Nervous System
    • controls all of the involuntary muscles, organs, and glands
    • Consists of:
    • Sympathetic and Parasympathetic division.
  17. Sympathetic division
    • A division of the Autonomic Nervous System.
    • The fight-or-flight system.
    • "cares about you"
  18. Parasympathetic division
    Restores body to normal functioning after arousal.
  19. What is the Endocrine System?
    The system of glands including the Pituitary**, Pineal, Thyroid, Pancreas, Gonads and Adrenal.
  20. Endocrine system works with the Nervous system with messages being sent through 1_______ to the 2_______ gland.
    It is 3________ reaching but at a 4______ pace.
    • 1 hypothalamus
    • 2 pituitary**
    • 3 far more
    • 4 slower (rate)
  21. Brain Stem
    The relatively primitive brain structure that starts where our spinal cord enters our head. Neurons within the brain stem control basic functions such as heart rate and breathing.
  22. Limbic System
    Part of the human brain involved in emotions, learning and memory.
  23. Limbic System includes...
    • hippocampus
    • thalamus
    • hypothalamus
    • amygdala
    • cingulate cortex
  24. Hippocampus
    • helps form new memories.
    • responsible for taking things from WM into long term memory storage for location of objects.
  25. Thalamus
    • TRIAGE nurse. ALL INCOMING INFO here first.
    • Impacts regulation of levels of awareness, attention, motivation, and emotional aspects of sensations.
  26. Hypothalamus
    • Monitors INTERNAL systems.
    • Responsible for behaviors such as sleep, hunger, thirst, and sex.
    • Almost a brain within a brain since it does so much.
  27. Amygdala
    • Responsible for fear responses and memory of fear; also the pleasure center.
    • Fight or flight decision starts here.
    • Encodes an emotional message into long term memory.
  28. Cingulate Cortex
    • emotional and cognitive functioning.
    • Linked to ADHD/MDD and Bipolar.
  29. Forebrain
    80 - 90% of the brain is here.
  30. Cerebrum
    located in the front area of the skull and consisting of two hemispheres, left and right, separated by a fissure
  31. Cerebral Cortex
    • Has two cerebral cortexes separated by the Corpus Collusum
  32. What are the four lobes of the brain?
    • Frontal lobe
    • Temporal lobe
    • Parietal lobe
    • Occipital lobe
  33. Frontal lobe
    Front part of the brain; involved in planning, organizing, problem solving, selective attention, personality and a variety of "higher cognitive functions."
  34. Temporal lobe
    Part of the brain involved in speech, language, memory, hearing and high level visual processing.
  35. Parietal lobe
    processes information about touch, taste, pressure, pain, and heat and cold.
  36. Occipital lobe
    Receives, interprets, and recognizes visual stimuli
  37. Cerebellum
    • "little brain"
    • Coordinates movement, Timing and perfection of complex motor tasks
  38. Cerebellum "little brain"
    ______ neurons than the entire rest of the brain
    Most (3.6 times as many)
  39. Cerebellum "little brain"
    Stores memories of ________ movements like typing, texting, tying shoes