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What are Neurons and what do they do?
The basic cell that makes up the entire nervous system and which receives and sends messages within that system.
short fiber that conducts messages toward the cell body of the neuron
the cell body of the neuron that contains the nucleus
the long threadlike part of a nerve cell along which impulses are conducted from the cell body to other cells
What is a synaptic knob?
- It is at the end of the Axon Terminal.
- The synaptic knob has synaptic vesicles w/ neurotransmitters inside them.
- When a nerve impulse reaches this area, it triggers the release of neurotransmitters from the synaptic vesicles.
What is a neurotransmitter?
It is a chemical that is produced in a neuron that carries messages to other neurons.
What is a synapse?
the microscopic gap between the axon of one neuron and the dendrite of another
Receptor sites - location and purpose
a location on a receptor neuron into which a specific neurotransmitter fits like a key into a lock
What is Reuptake?
The sucking back up of neurotransmitters into the original firing synaptic knob to be stored and used for later.
- appears to be involved in learning and memory.
- not enough = dementia, eg. Alzheimer's disease
- a neurotransmitter associated with arousal, sleep, appetite, moods, and emotions
- not enough = depression
- A neurotransmitter associated with movement, attention, learning, and the brain’s pleasure and reward system.
- too little: Parkinson's
- too much: schizophrenia
involved in pain relief
What is the Periperal Nervous System?
- Divided into Somatic and Autonomic systems.
- Allows communication between brain, spinal cord and muscles/glands.
Somatic Nervous System
- Consists of:
- Sensory pathway: sends messages from sensory organs (skin, eyes, ears, etc.) to Central Nervous System
- Motor pathway: messages from the Central Nervous System to voluntary muscles
Autonomic Nervous System
- controls all of the involuntary muscles, organs, and glands
- Consists of:
- Sympathetic and Parasympathetic division.
- A division of the Autonomic Nervous System.
- The fight-or-flight system.
- "cares about you"
Restores body to normal functioning after arousal.
What is the Endocrine System?
The system of glands including the Pituitary**, Pineal, Thyroid, Pancreas, Gonads and Adrenal.
Endocrine system works with the Nervous system with messages being sent through 1_______ to the 2_______ gland.
It is 3________ reaching but at a 4______ pace.
- 1 hypothalamus
- 2 pituitary**
- 3 far more
- 4 slower (rate)
The relatively primitive brain structure that starts where our spinal cord enters our head. Neurons within the brain stem control basic functions such as heart rate and breathing.
Part of the human brain involved in emotions, learning and memory.
Limbic System includes...
- cingulate cortex
- helps form new memories.
- responsible for taking things from WM into long term memory storage for location of objects.
- TRIAGE nurse. ALL INCOMING INFO here first.
- Impacts regulation of levels of awareness, attention, motivation, and emotional aspects of sensations.
- Monitors INTERNAL systems.
- Responsible for behaviors such as sleep, hunger, thirst, and sex.
- Almost a brain within a brain since it does so much.
- Responsible for fear responses and memory of fear; also the pleasure center.
- Fight or flight decision starts here.
- Encodes an emotional message into long term memory.
- emotional and cognitive functioning.
- Linked to ADHD/MDD and Bipolar.
80 - 90% of the brain is here.
located in the front area of the skull and consisting of two hemispheres, left and right, separated by a fissure
- Has two cerebral cortexes separated by the Corpus Collusum
- THINKING, MEMORY, and SPEECH, MUSCLE MOVEMENT happen here
What are the four lobes of the brain?
- Frontal lobe
- Temporal lobe
- Parietal lobe
- Occipital lobe
Front part of the brain; involved in planning, organizing, problem solving, selective attention, personality and a variety of "higher cognitive functions."
Part of the brain involved in speech, language, memory, hearing and high level visual processing.
processes information about touch, taste, pressure, pain, and heat and cold.
Receives, interprets, and recognizes visual stimuli
- "little brain"
- Coordinates movement, Timing and perfection of complex motor tasks
Cerebellum "little brain"
______ neurons than the entire rest of the brain
Most (3.6 times as many)
Cerebellum "little brain"
Stores memories of ________ movements like typing, texting, tying shoes