Antomy test 2

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Antomy test 2
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2013-03-02 15:42:59
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anatomy lymph system circulatory blood vessels arteries
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anatomy
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  1. Circulatory System
    •  Consists: heart , blood       vessels, blood
    • Hematogly: study of the heart
  2. Functions of Blood
    • Hormones to target organs
    • Transportation- nutrients,wastes, heat 
    • Protection- limit speed of infection,       destroy pathogens, platelets secrete stuff inate blood clotting for blood loss
    • Regulation-Absorption (give off fluid help stabilize fluid distribution in the body)       stabilize pH, Buffering
  3. Properties of Blood
    • 8% body weight
    • Temp- 100 degrees F
    • pH-   7.35-7.45
    • Viscosity- 4.5
    • Salinty-0.9%
  4. Components of Blood
    • Liquid  CT   
    • Plasma- clear extracellular fluid  
    • Formed Elements       
    •     RBC ,WBC ,Platelets  
    • How  substances travel
    • Vessels- routing of materials
  5. Blood Plasma
    • Complex mixture    
    •   Water 90% , Proteins 8% , Other solutes 2%       
    • Enzymes, hormones, wastes, gases  
    • Serum  
    •    Plasma without clotting protein fibrinogen
  6. Plasma  Proteins
    • Albumins- smalles and most abundant    1.Transport carries  
    • 2.Blood buffers- if change affects blood vol.,  pressure, and flow  
    • 3.Contgributions to viscosity and osmolarity Globulins, three categories- transport, clotting, immunity   
    • 1.Alpha and Beta transport proteins  
    • 2.Gamma function as antibodies
    • Fibrinogen   
    • 1.Clotting Protein- forms clot, soluble precursor of  fibrin, come from plasma cells
  7. Other  Constituents of Plasma
    • Electrolytes-sodium ions, contribute to osmotic pressure, major influence on blood volume and pressure
    • Nutrients-  simple aa, fatty acids, lactic acid, urea, uric acid
    • Gases- oxygen, co, nitrogen
  8. Blood      Viscosity and Osmolality
    • Viscosity- important for circulatory function   
    • 1.Resistance of fluid to flow from particle cohesion       
    • 1.1Whole blood due to RBCs   
    • 2.1Plasma due to proteins  
    • Osmolality-  cardiovascular function    1.2Molarity of dissolved particles in blood   2.2Sodium ions, protein, erythrocytes        2.2.1Colloid osmotic pressure- contribution of proteins   to blood osmotic pressure      2.3Remove waste nourish surrounding cells   2.4Governs rate of reabsorption  
    • 2.5If increase blood, absorb too much water= high blood  pressure vice versa
  9. Blood      Cell production
    • Hemopoiesis-       production of blood    Myeloid Hemopoiesis- made in red bone marrow\  
    • Lymphoid Hemopoiesis- made in thymus, tonsil, lymph        nodes, spleen
    • Trace       origins to common tube    Hemopoiesis stem cell
  10. Hemopoiesis
    • Pluripotent  stem cells- hemocyoblast    Develop multiple mature cells
    • Colony       forming unit- committed cells    Surface receptor on membrane  
    • Produce one or another class of elements Precursor Cells
    • Mature  Cells- requires continual replacement, in plasma
  11. Formed  Elements
    • Erythrocytes  RBC
    • Leukocytes WBC
    • Platelets Features: Most are short lived and renewed and replaced
    • Come from CT plasma cells and live
  12. Erythrocytes  RBC
    • Function-  carry O2 and CO2
    • Form- Biconcave disc- promotes quick diffusion   
    • No nucleus or DNA  
    • No mitochondria- ATP through anaerobic mechanisms,  made to deliver oxygen   Cytoplasm-red pigment   
    • Plasma Membrane      
    •   Outer proteins for blood type  
    •   Inner proteins provide durability and resilience   
    • Glycolipids- blood type, outer surface,
  13. Hemoglobin      Structure
    • Globin’s   
    • 4 polypeptide chains       
    • 2 alpha chains- 141 chains of aa each   
    • 2 beta chains – 146 aa long each  
    • Heme   
    • Each chain conjugated  
    • Binds oxygen to ferrous ion  
    • Carries 4 oxygen atoms  
    • Has globin moiety
  14. RBC      count and Hb concentration-
    • Determine amount of oxygen blood can carry More  in girls than boys
    • Hematocrit-  packed cell vol. PCV   
    • Larger in women because androgens stimulate RBC product.  , menstrual loses, body fat
  15. Erythrocyte      Life Cycle-
    • Life  Span 120 days
    • Erythropoiesis  –production of RBC  
    •   4 major developments: Reduction, lose nucleus, increase in cell #, synthesis of hemoglobin
    • Iron metabolism
    • RBC homeostasis
    • Death  and Disposal
  16. Erythropoiesis
    •  PPSC
    • ECFU  –begins   
    • Receptors for Erythropoietin (EPO) Erythroblast   
    • Synthesize hemoglobin and discard nucleus Reticulocyte    
    • Leaves bone marrow into blood  
    • No nucleus and network of polyribosomes Erythrocyte
  17. Iron  Metabolism
    • Dietary Iron-convert Ferris to ferrous ions
    • Gastro ferritin- stomach to small intestines
    • Transferrin – plasma protein go to bone marrow, live, etc.
    • Ferritin- store complex and release Fe 2+ into circulation
    • Other       nutrients- vitamin B-12, Folic acid, copper, vitamin
  18. Erythrocyte      Homeostatic
    •  Neg.  feedback loop- RBC count   
    • Hypoxemia-oxygen deficiency in blood, no oxygen in   air, increase in oxygen consumption  
    • Kidneys releases EPO  
    • Increase in O2 inhibits
  19. RBC Death and Disposal
    • Hemolysis-  
    • hemoglobin and PMs (leaves them empty)
    • Plasma  membranes- Macrophages in liver and spleen
    • Hemoglobin   
    • 1.3Heme- hormones, iron and biliverdin        1.31Bind to albumin in plasma, liver unbinds them and  goes to bile, to small intestine convert to urobilinogen    
    • 2.3Globin- free amino acids
    • Many  die in spleen
    • Membrane foes fragile, no organelles can’t make spectrum
  20. Erythrocyte Disorders
    • Imbalance between rate of Erythropoiesis and RBC destruction
    • Primary- cancer, increase RBC circulates system engaged, clots
    • Secondary-   dehydration, water loss, smoking, air pollution
    • Polycythemia – increase blood vol, pressure, and viscosity 
    • Excess of RBC
    • Anemia- cause inadequate hemoglobin synthesis, hemolytic anemia   
    • Deficiency of RBC or hemoglobin
    • Sickle Cell Disease- iron- deficiency anemia, no iron, and pernicious anemia, no B12  
    • Lead to kidney and heart failure, stroke, paralysis  
    • Pos feedback loop – hemolysis cause anemia and hypoxemia  
    • Altered hemoglobin structure  
    • Alters RBC shape and becomes sticky agglutinate  clump together
  21. Blood      types
  22. Based on large molecules – antigens and antibodies
    • Antigens-  complex molecules,   
    • Genetically unique to each indiv., Not identical  twins, on surface of cell, ables body to distinguish its own cells  
    • Detected: immune response activated, plasma cells, antibodies, secrete proteins
    • Antibodies-  bind to antigens and mark them for destruction
    • Agglutination- method of antibody action, antibodies stick antigens together
    • Blood types result from reaction between antigens
  23. ABO 
    • A,  B, AB, O
    • Presence  and absence of A and B
    • Appear in blood for 2-8 months
    • O   most common
    • Universal recipient- AB no antibodies
    • Universaldonor- O
    • Blood types are fixed
  24. Rh group 
    • Antigen D , C, or E present
    • Rh + if have any
  25. Leukocytes-   
    • white blood cells, live in CT , have organelles Least  abundant formed element in blood
    • Form- complete cells, rough ER, ribosomes, Golgi, lysosomes
    • Function -  Defense against pathogens-phagocytosis, and immune response
  26. Types of Leukocytes-
    • All have nonspecific granules
    • Granulocytes   
    • 1.1Neutrophils- defense against pathogens   2.1Eosinophil’s  
    • 3.1Basophils
    • Agranulocytes-lack granules    1.2Lymphocytes  
    • 2.2Monocytes
    • Different   in shape of nuclei, presence or absence of granules, and function
  27. Functions of Granulocytes
    • Neutrophils  –Most abundant   
    • 1.1 Bacterial infections  
    • 1.2Immediate phagocytosis  
    • 1.3Antimicrobial chemicals
    • Eosinophils- increase night and day, seasons, cycles   
    • 1.2Release anti-histamines  
    • 1.3Parasitic worms
    • Basophils  widen blood vessels, helps repair injured tissue   
    • 1.3Secrete histamine  
    • 1.4Secrete heparin- inhibits blood clots and attracts other two to infections
  28. Functions  of Agranulocytes
    •  Lymphocytes- nucleus round and purple    1.1Second most abundant  
    • 2.1Role in specific immunity  
    • 3.1Secrete antibodies  
    • 4.1Coordinate immune cells  
    • 5.1Immune memory
    • Monocytes-largest, increase inflammation    1.2Differentiate into macrophages   2.2Phagocytosis  
    • 3.2Slow but numerous  
    • 4.2Great capacity- destroy foreign cells
  29. Leukocyte  Life Cycle
    • Leucopoiesis- production of WBC   
    • 1.1PPSCs heomopoietic stem cells       
    • CFUs   
    • Receptor for Colony Stimulating Factors  
    • Precursor Cells   
    • 1.2Myoblasts- granulocytes  
    • 2.2Monoblasts  
    • 3.2Lymphoblast’s- lymphocytes
    • Mature Cells- secrete several types of CSs in response to infections
  30. Precursor  Cell
    • Committed   Colony Forming Units (CFUs)    1.1 Receptor for specific CSFs
    • Myoblasts   
    • 1.2Granulocytes -Stored in red bone marrow        Neutrophils, Eosinophils, Basophils   Monoblasts   
    • 1.3Monocytes- Stored in red bone marrow Lymphoblast’s   
    • 1.4Lymphocytes       
    • Begin in red bone marrow  
    •  Some mature in thymus  
  31. WBC disorders
    •  Below normal range- leukopenia
    • Above  range- leukocytosis, allergies and infections
    • Leukemia-  tissue that makes a lot of WBC
  32. Platelets-    
    • Not cells and 2nd most abundant
    • Form-  Pseudopods is how they move    Fragments of marrow cells (megakaryocytes)  
    • Complex internal structure       
    • 1.2Lysosomes, mitochondria, microtubules    
    • 1.3Granules contain platelet secretions, Open   canalicular system   
    • 1.4 No nucleus  
    • Functions   
    • Secrete vasoconstrictors –reduce blood loss   Secrete clotting factors-promote blood clotting  
    • Platelet plugs-seal breaks in injured blood vessels  
    • Dissolve blood clots  
    • Phagocytize and destroy bacteria  
    • Attract neutrophils and monocytes- to inflammation  
    • Secrete growth factors
  33. Platelet  Production
    • Called Thrombopoiesis   
    • 1.1PPSCs  
    • 2.1Megakaryoblasts        
    •       Receptor for thrombopoietin- duplicate DNA     
    • 3.1Megakaryocytes       
    •        Numerous mitotic divisions with cytokinesis     
    • 4.1Platelets form when cytoplasm breaks       
    •       25-40% stored in spleen   
    •       Rest circulate in blood  
    • Deficiency  called thrombocytopenia
  34. Hemostasis
    • Cessation  of bleeding
    • Hemostatic    response   
    • 1.2Vascular spam  
    • 2.2Platelet plug formation  
    • 3.2Blood clotting
    • Three       mechanisms in microcirculation
  35. Vascular Spasm-
    • Protection against blood loss
    • Immediate  contraction to contract vessel          
    •     Reduce blood flow
    • Triggered   by   
    •     Direct injury to vascular SM  
    •     Chemicals from platelets and ECs  
    •     Local pain receptors
  36. Platelet      Plug Formation
    • Temporary  seal in vessel wall   
    • 1.1Damaged collagen fibers exposed   2.1Platelet adhesion occurs via pseudopods, which pull        broken wall together   3.1Degranulation, which releases factors promoting        hemostasis, of platelets            Release serotonin, ADP, and thromboxane A2              
    •             Aggregation, degranulation, vasoconstriction             
    •          Initiates positive feedback cycle      1.4Stops minor bleeding
  37. Coagulation
    • Most   effective defense against bleeding    1.1Converts fibrinogen to fibrin- stick to walls  
    • 1.2Different pathways 
    •       Extrinsic-damage blood vessels                    Clotting factors outside    
    •           Faster (~ 15 sec)             
    •       Intrinsic- in blood itself                   
    •            Clotting factors inside    
    •            Slower (3-6 min)      
  38. Clotting      Factors
    • Procoagulation
    • Plasma       proteins made by liver    1.1Numbered I to XIII (order of discovery)   2.1Circulate in inactive form
    • Procoagulants  or coagulation factors    1.2Enhance clotting- produced by liver in plasma  
    • 2.2 Reaction cascade, activates next enzyme Anticoagulants   
    • 1.3Inhibit clotting
  39. Initation  of Coagulation
    • Extrinsic  
    • 1.1Thromplastin release      
    •         From vessels or tissues  
    • Intrinsic   
    • 1.2Factor XII release , from Platelets   2.2Cascade of events
    • Both  lead to activation of Factor X!
  40. Completion      of  Coagulation
    • Factor   X activated, combine with factor 3 and IIV
    • Prothombin  activator, produced
    • Thrombin  formed
    • Fibrin formed  
    •     Fibrinogen and Thrombin
  41. Fate  of Blood Clots
    • Clot   Retraction   
    • 1.1Platelet induced process  
    • 2.1Pseudopods adhere to fibrin and contract  
    • 3.1Compacts blood clot
    • Repair   
    • 3.2Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)   3.3Stimulates fibroblasts and smooth muscle cells, which        help strengthen and seal vessels
    • Fibrinolysis- Kallikrein- converts plasmin and breaks up the clot   
    • 4.1Dissolution of clot  
    • 4.2Cascade of events  
    • 4.3Plasmin produced
  42. Homeostatic      Mechanisms
    • Prevention   of inappropriate clotting    1.1Platelet repulsion       
    •        Prostacyclin-coated endothelium      2.1Dilution       
    •        Blood flow limits accumulation of thrombin     
    • 3.1Anticoagulants    
    •        Inhibitors of thrombin                   
    •           Antithrombin from liver    
    •           Heparin, from Basophils, mast cells      
  43. Blood      Vessels
    •  Arteries- Carry blood away (efferent)
    • Veins-  Carry blood towards (afferent)Capillaries- Microscopic connections
    • Differ  in histological structure of their walls
  44. Anatomy      of Blood Vessels
    • With endothelium of heart
    • Tunica  Interna- Intima  
    •      Endothelium is selective permeable, secretes  chemicals, repels blood cells and platelets, which repair it when        damaged  
    •        Lines inside of vessels exposed to the blood, loose        CT, simple squamous Tunica  Media   
    •        Middle layer, thickest, smooth muscle, strengthens    vessel, prevents blood pressures, vasomation changes the diameter of        blood vessels
    • Tunica       Externa –outermost layer      
    •         Loose CT, anchors vessels, passage for small nerves,  3 layers   Adventitia
  45. Tunica      Interna
    • Platelets repair it when damage
    • Composition    
    • 1.1Endothelium       
    •        Continuous layer of cells throughout system   
    •         Simple squamous epithelium   
    •        Layer in contact with the blood   Functions:   
    • 1.2Selectively permeable barrier  
    • 2.2Secretion of chemicals  
    • 3.2Repels blood cells and platelets   4.2Inflammation
  46. Tunica      Media
    • -middle layers and thickest
    • Composition  
    •     Smooth muscle, elastic tissue, collagen     
    •      Amount of SM varies
    • Functions:   
    • 1.2Strengthen vessels/prevent rupture   1.3Vasomotion!!       
    •          Vasoconstriction and Vasodilation  
  47. Tunica      Externa
    • -outermost
    • Composition-  Loose connective tissue
    • Functions:   
    • 1.2 Protects and anchors vessel  
    • 2.2Passage for nerves, lymphatic vessels   3.2Vaso Vasorum- Supplies blood to outer wall of larger  vessels
  48. Arteries
    • Withstand   pressure when heart beats retain shape, resistance vessels
    • Designed  to withstand surges of pressure
    • More       smooth muscle
    • 3   categories
    •      Conducting  arteries- Elastic, large
    •       Distributing  arteries- Muscular, medium
    •      Resistance  arteries- Arterioles, small
  49. Conducting Arteries
    • Largest   diameter 40-70 layers   
    • 1.1Elastic tunica media  
    • 2.1Examples- Aorta, pulmonary trunk, common carotid,   subclavian, common iliac  
    • 3.1Internal elastic Lamina is the border between  interna, and media  
    • 4.1External elastic lamina- between media and externa
    • Functions:  
    • 1.2Reduce effects of BP surges       
    •        Expand during systole   
    •        Recoil during diastole   
    •       Maintains blood flow  
  50. Distributing      Arteries
    •  Thickest   smooth muscle- small branches, “exit ramps to highway”   
    • 1.1Examples- Brachial, femoral, renal, splenic
    • Functions:   
    • 1.2Blood to specific organs  
    • 2.2Adjust flow based on demand
  51. Resistance      Arteries
    • 25 layers, thick tunica media, smallest of this type (arterioles)
    • SM  layers variable
    • Little  elastic tissue
    • Arterioles   
    • 1.4Smallest resistance vessels  
    • Lead into capillary bed        Connected by metarterioles  
    • Function   
    • 1.5Primary control of blood flow  
    • 2.5Most responsible for PR  
    • 3.5 Significantly affects BP
  52. Matartioles
    •  Link arteries and caps
    • Muscle  cells form precapp sphincter
  53. Arterial Sense Organs
    •  Above  heart, monitor heartbeat, transfer info to brainstem
    • 3  kinds   
    • 2.1Carotid sinuses- baroreceptors          
    •       Pressure sensors   
    •       Respond to changes in blood pressure       
    •       Wall of internal carotid artery, thin tunica media     
    • 2.2Carotid Bodies- chemoreceptors       
    •        Near carotid arties   
    •        Monitor change in blood composition, signals to brainstem     
    • 2.3Aortic Bodies- chemoreceptor       
    •        Like carotid bodies  
  54. Capillaries
    • Exchange  vessels
    • Smallest   blood vessels   
    • 1.1Single layer of ECs  
    • 2.1Small lumen
    • Function:   
    • 1.2Exchange of materials  
    • 2.2Close proximity to cells
    • Types   
    • 1.3Continuous  
    • 2.3Fenestrated  
    • 3.3Sinusoid
  55. Continuous      Capillaries
    • Present  in most tissues   
    • 1.1Skeletal muscle
    • Tight  junctions- form tubes separated by intercellular clefts   
    • 2.1 Hold ECs together
    • Intracellular  clefts   
    • 1.3Small molecules pass thru- Glucose   2.3Large molecules held back- Plasma proteins, Formed   elements
    • Pericytes- Contractile proteins  
    • 1.4Wrap around capillaries and regulate blood flow        through cap.
    • Carbohydrate  layer- thin protein   
    • 1.5Basal lamina, separate CT from enod.
  56. Fenestrated  Capillaries
    • ECs       with filtration pores   
    • 1.1Greater permeability  
    • 2.1Rapid passage of small molecules  
    • 3.1No formed elements
    • Examples- Kidneys, Endocrine glands, Small intestine, Choroid plexus   
    • 1.2Organs that have rapid absorption
  57. Sinusoids     
    • EC separated by wide gaps with no basal lamina and have microphages
    • Discontinuous capillaries
    • Irregular, blood-filled spaces
    • ECs  with large fenestrations   
    • 1.4Formed elements pass
    • Examples-  Liver, Bone marrow, Spleen
  58. Capillary Beds
    •  Network of capillaries   
    • 1.1Exchange of materials
    • Not all perfused
    • Thoroughfare channel- leads to venule    1.3Metarteriole to venule  
    • 2.3Precapillary sphincters
  59. Venules
    • Post capillary venules   
    • 1.1Smallest veins  
    • 2.1Tunica intima  
    • 3.1Often have pericytes  
    • 4.1Extremely porous
    • Muscular  venules- exchanging with surrounding tissue   
    • 1.2Thin tunica media  
    • 2.2Thin tunica externa
  60. Medium Veins
    • Have all 3 tunics   
    • 1.1Thin tunica media   
    • 2.1Thick tunica externa  
    • 3.1Large lumen  
    • 4.1Tunica intima  
    • 5.1Endothelium  
    • 6.1Valves
    • Relatively thin wall vessel   
    • 1.2BP much lower  
    • 2.2Collapse when empty
    • Blood reservoirs   
    • 1.3Large percentage of total blood supply Flow of blood depend on massaging action of skeletal muscles
  61. Venous Valves
    • Abundant where upward flow opposed by gravity
    • Not present in: ex- coronary sinus   
    • 1.2Small or large veins  
    • 2.2Abdominal and thoracic cavities  
    • 3.2Brain
    • Thin walls, no smooth muscles, large lumens
  62. Large Veins
    • Very thin tunica intima
    • Very thick tunica externa
    • No  veins
    • Examples: Venae cavae, Pulmonary, Internal jugular, Renal
    • Smooth muscle in all tunics
  63. Circulatory Routes
    • Simple Pathway
    • Portal System   
    • 1.2Kidneys  
    • 2.2Hypothalamus and Anterior Pituitary Arteriovenous anastomosis- Shunt, blood flow from arteries to veins,   
    • 1.3In fingernails, palms, and toes   
    • 2.3Reduce heat loss
    • Venous anastomose- Alternative drainage
    • Arterial anastomoses- Collateral supply
    • Anastomosis-where blood vessels merge
  64. Flow, Perfusion, and Pressure
    • Flow- Volume of blood through organ, tissue, or vessel in a given time
    • Expressed  in ml/min
    • Perfusion-  Flow per given volume or mass of tissue
    • Expressed in ml/min/g
    • Pressure- Force of blood exerted on vessel wall
    • Expressed in mmHg
    • Large organ=great flow and less perfusion
  65. Hemodynamics
    • Study of physical principles of blood flow
    • Based       on pressure and resistance
    • F   ≈ ΔP /R
    • F = blood flow, ΔP =       difference in pressure, R = resistance to flow
    • Great  R less F, Great change in O Greater F
  66. Blood Pressure
    •  Varies throughout system   
    • 1.1Highest pressure immediately after systole  
    • 2.1Highest pressure proximal to heart   3.1Arteries à Capillaries        à Veins Influenced by:   
    • 1.2Elasticity of arteries       
    • Recoil maintains pressure and facilitates flow  
    • Volume of blood forced
    • Kinetic energy of blood stretching the aorta
    • Force blood exerts on vessel wall - catheter
  67. Measures of Arterial BP
    • Systolic
    • Diastolic
    • Pulse pressure (PP)- Measure of pressures surges   
    • 1.3PP = SBP – DBP  
    • 2.3Max stress generated by heart
    • Mean Arterial Pressure (MAP)-Average of pressures   
    • 1.4MAP = DBP + 1/3 (PP)  
    • 2.4Influences syncope (fainting)
  68. Determinants of BP
  69. BP  increase with age – hypertensions 140/90 or higher
    • Depends  on coordinated function   
    • 1.2Brain       
    •     Heart    
    •     Blood Vessels    
    •     Kidneys     
    • 2.2Main variables       
    •      Cardiac output   
    •      Blood volume- regulated by kidneys       
    •      Resistance to flow  
  70. Resistance
    • Arterioles- proximal sides of caps, regulate flow into caps, more
    • Measure of friction encountered by blood through vessels   
    • 1.2Opposition to flow
    • Peripheral resistance   
    • 1.3Generally from smaller vessels and arterioles
    • Sources:   
    • 1.4Blood viscosity- don’t change   
    • 2.4Blood vessel length- don’t change  
    • 3.4Blood vessel diameter
  71. Blood Viscosity
    • Defined as “thickness” of blood, Results from RBC and albumin   
    • 1.1Deficiency reduces viscosity and increases flow 
    • Directly proportional to resistance
    • Inversely proportional to flow   
    • 1.3 Increase viscosity, decrease flow
  72. Blood      Vessel Length
    •  Distance  blood must travel   
    • 1.1Longer distance = more friction
    • Directly proportional to resistance   
    • 1.2Longer vessel = greater resistance Inversely proportional to flow   
    • 1.3Longer vessel = lower flow
    • P+F  goes down with distance
  73. Blood Vessel Diameter
  74. Diameter changes   
    • 1.1Vasoconstriction- narrowing of vessels   2.1Vasodilation – widening of vessels   3.1Constantly alters peripheral resistance Laminar vs. turbulent   
    • 1.2Laminar flows in layers      
    • 2.2Turbulent0 affects blood velocity  
    • 3.2F= R^4
  75. Poiseuille’s Law
    •  Flow =   ΔBP * π * r4 /8 * (viscosity * length)
    • Resistance = 8 * viscosity * length/ pie * r4
    • Resistance:  greatestimpact on flow because of arterioles
  76. Regulation of Pressure and Flow
    •  Local Control
    • Neural Control
    • Hormonal Control
    • Control of vasomotion
  77. Local Control
  78. Autoregulation   
    • 1.1Ability of tissue to regulate own flow
    • Myogenic control
    • Metabolic control-stimulate vasomotion   
    • 1.3CO2, H+, K+, lactic acid  
    • 2.3Vasoactive chemicals- Histamine, prostaglandins, bradykinin Angiogenesis
    • Reactive  hyperemia- increase above normal level of flow
    • Growth of new blood vessels
  79. Neural Control
    • Vasomotor center in medulla   
    • 1.1Sympathetic impulses to smooth muscle      
    •     Constrict most vessels   
    •     Dilate vessels of skeletal and cardiac muscle  
    • Regulated by autonomic reflexes    1.2Baroreflex  
    • 2.2Chemoreflex  
    • 3.2Medullary ischemic reflex
    • Blood vessels under control by central and ANS
  80. Baroreflex
    • Autonomic,  negative feedback mechanism in response to blood pressure
    • Baroreceptors
    • Inhibits  SNS signaling rate increase    1.3Cardiac center  
    • 2.3Vasomotor center
    • Excites vagal fiber
    • Effects   
    • 1.5Reduce HR  
    • 2.5Reduce CO  
    • 3.5Dilates vessel  
    • 4.5Reduces BP
    • Good for adapting to changes in posture
  81. Chemoreflex
    • Autonomic response to chemical changes   
    • 1.1Chemoreceptors  
    • 2.1↓pH, ↓O2, ↑CO2
    • Primary role   
    • 1.2Adjust respiration
    • Secondary role   
    • 1.3Vasomotor
    •      Vasoconstriction    
    •     Increases perfusion  
    • Increase  BP
  82. Medullary Ischemic Reflex
    • Autonomic  response to drop in brain perfusion   
    • 1.1Cardiac and Vasomotor Centers           
    •       Increase HR and contraction         
    •       Widespread vasoconstriction     
    • 1.2Input from higher brain center       
    •       Stress, arousal, anger  
    • Medulla monitors its own blood supply
  83. Chemical  Control
    • Hormones  act on vascular smooth muscle    1.1Angiotensin II increase BP       
    •      vasoconstriction     
    • 2.1Aldosterone increase Blood vol. And pressure       
    •      Sodium retention by kidneys     
    • 1.3 Atrial natriuretic peptide decrease Blood volume and  pressure       
    •      Increases sodium excretion      1.4Antidiuretic hormone vasoconstrictor increase BP       
    •      Water retention     
    • 1.5Epinephrine and norepinephrine increase blood flow       
    •      Vasoconstriction in most vessels   
    •      Vasodilation in coronary and skeletal muscle blood vessels  
  84. Vasomotion  
    • Increase or decrease BP   
    • 1.1Needs centralized control  
    • 2.1Widespread vasocontriction
    • Modifying perfusion of certain organ
    • Reroute  blood from region to another    1.3Central or local control   
    • 2.3 Exercise  
    • 3.3Constricts on blood route and blood doesn’t go to  route more resistance
  85. Redirection of Blood Flow
    • Localized  vasoconstriction of artery   
    • 1.1Pressure downstream decreases  
    • 2.1Pressure upstream increases  
    • 3.1Blood takes the path of least resistance
  86. Capillary Exchange
    • Two way movement of materials and fluids   
    • 1.1Delivery       
    •       Blood->capillary->interstitial space->tissue              
    •          Oxygen, Glucose, AA, lipids, minerals, hormones             
    •        Velocity of blood slows into capillary bed              
    •             Increase in cross sectional area of bed     
    •             Increases time for exchange          1.2Removal       
    •        Tissue->interstitial space ->capillary-> blood   
    •        CO2, ammonia, other wastes     
    •        Chemicals pass 3 routes                 
    •             Endothelial cell of cytoplasm, intercellular clefts, and filtration pores      
  87. Modes of Capillary Exchange
    • Diffusion
    • Vesicular Transport   
    • 1.2Transcytosis       
    •      Pinocytosis   
    •      Exocytosis  
    • Bulk Flow   
    • 1.3Filtration  
    • 2.3Reabsorption
  88. Diffusion
    • Simple diffusion- Through plasma membrane   
    • 1.1Requires concentration gradient  
    • 2.1Lipid – soluble materials
    • Water  – soluble substances insoluble in lipids   
    • 1.2Fenestrations -Pores in capillary cell   2.2Intercellular clefts- Gaps in tight junctions between cells
  89. Vesicular Transport
    • Transcytosis   
    • 1.1Vesicles pick up fluid by pinocytosis   2.1Transport across cell  
    • 3.1Discharge on other side (exocytosis) Small  percent of exchange   
    • 1.2 Fatty acids  
    • 2.2Albumin  
    • 3.2Hormones (insulin)
  90. Bulk Flow
    •  Balance of filtration and osmotic forces    1.1Filtration at arterial end of capillary   2.1Reabsorption at venous end of capillary   3.1Fluid from interstitial space to capillary
    • Two forces involved   
    • 1.2Hydrostatic-physical force by liquid on surface of capillary  
    • 2.2Osmotic  
    • 3.2Net Filtration Pressure (NFP)
  91. Exchange-Related Pressures
    •  Colloid Osmotic Pressures – due to proteins   
    • Blood (BCOP)  
    • Interstitial Fluid (ICOP)
  92. Net Filtration Pressure
    • Arterial   end of capillary (error in IHP)
    • Net Hydrostatic Pressure   
    • 2.1NHP = BHP – IHP   
    • NHP = 30 – (3) = 27 mmHg
    • Net  Colloid Osmotic Pressure   
    • NCOP = BCOP – ICOP  
    • NCOP = 28 – 8 = 20 mmHg
    • Net Filtration Pressure   
    • NFP = NHP – NCOP      
    • NFP = 27 – 20 = 7 mmHg
  93. Net Reabsorption Pressure
    • Venous  end of capillary (error in IHP)
    • NHP = BHP - IHP   
    • 1.2NHP = 10 – (3) = 7mmHg  
    • NCOP = BCOP –ICOP   
    • 1.4NCOP = 28 – 8 = 20mmHg
    • NFP  = NHP – NCOP   
    • 1.5NFP = 7 – 20 = -13mmHg
    • Prevailing force inward overrides filtration pressure
    • Edema- accumulation of excess fluid in tissue   
    • 1.7Fluid is filtered faster than reabsorbed
  94.  Mechanisms of Venous Return
    • Pressure  gradient   
    • 1.1Central venous pressure
    • Gravity-  flow downhill
    • Skeletal muscle pump   
    • 1.4Contraction squeezes or “milks” veins- thoracic  expands
    • Respiratory pump   
    • 1.5Thoracic pressure
    • Cardiac suction
    • Venous Return – flow of blood back to heart
    • Suction draw blood into atria   
    • 1.8Increase cap. Filtration  
    • 2.8Decrease cap reabsorption  
    • 3.8Obstructed lymph drainage
  95.  Mechanisms of Venous Return
    • Exercise   increases it   
    • 1.1faster heartbeat, and harder, increase cardiac output and blood pressure
    • blood vessels, and skeletal muscles, increase the flow
    • venous  poding   
    • 1.3blood accumulates in limbs  
    • 2.3person still
  96. Circulatory shock
    A state in which cardiac output is insufficient to body’s needs
  97. Lymphattic System
    • Network of Vessels
    • Collection of tissues and organs that produce immune cells
    • Functions:
    • 1.1Fluiud recovery- filters from blood cells to tissues
    • 2.1immunity- picks up foreign cells
    • 3.Lipid absoprtion- small intestine
  98. Components of Lymph system
    • Lymph tissues- Lymphocytes
    • Lymph organs- Ct capsules
    • Lymph vessels-transpoert lymph cells
    • 1.3lymph- originate in tissue fluid
    • 2.3 clear fluid, similar to blood
    • Lymph capp.
  99. Lymph Cap.
    • Absorb interstitial fluid
    • assoicated with blood cap
    • 1.2higly permeable ECS- no tight junctions, anchored by filaments, Ec opening during swelling
    • closed at one end not like blood vessel
    • Specialized capp.
    • 1.3Lacteals -absorb and transport dietary lipids
  100. Lymph Vessels
    • Collecting vessel- lymph capp. converge
    • Similar to veins
    • 1.2 thinner walls and more vavles
    • tunica interna- endothelium and vavles
    • tunica media-elastic fibers and smooth muscle
    • tunica externa-thing
  101. Lymphatic Trunks
    • Drains major portion of body
    • Names for location
    • 1.lumbar
    • 2.Intercostal
    • 3.Brachiomediastinal
    • 4.Subclavian
    • 5.Jugular
    • Form collecting ducts
  102. Collecting Ducts
    • Large structrures in thoracic region
    • 1.1. right Lymph- to right subclavian
    • 2.1 left lymph to thoracic and to left subclavian
    • Thoracic duct- larger and longer and below diaphragm
  103. Flow of Lymph
    • Slow speed under low pressure and aided by valves
    • Flow promoted by
    • 1.skeletal muscles
    • 2.smooth muscles contraction in vessels
    • 3. breathing
    • 4.Pushing of arteries - common ct tissue
    • Valves prevent the fluid from flowing backward
    • Rhythemic contractions
  104. Lymph Cells
    • All in respiratorym digestive, urinary, reproductive tracts
    • 1.Natural killler cells - host cells, destroy bacteria
    • 2.T Lymphocytes- mature in thymus
    • 3.B lymphocytes- secrete anitbodies
    • 4.Macrophages- phagocytize tissue debris
    • 5. Dendritic Cells-alert immune system
    • Reticular Cells
  105. Lymph Tissues
    • Aggregation of lymph in CT
    • 1.1 diffuse Lymph tissue - Mucosa-associated Lymph tissue-MALT
    •      In the respiratory, digestive, urinary, reproductive tracts
    •      Lymph scattered
    • 2.1Lymphatic nodules (follicles)
    • dense Lymphocytes and macrophages
    •     lymph nodes, tonsils, appendix(in ilieum), peyer's patches
    •    invade tissues and act aspathogens so the immune system answers
  106. Lymph organs
    • Well defind anatomical sites with CT capsules seperating lymphatitic tissues
    •  1.1Primary lymphativ organs
    •       Immunocompetency of T and B lymphocytes (red bone marrow and thymus)
    • 2.1 secondary lymphatic organs
    •       contain immunocompetent cells
    •      lymph nodes, tonsils, spleen
    •      after mature in primary lymph organs
  107. Red Bone marrow
    • Axial skeleton, promixial head of humerous and femur in adulrs
    • multiple tissues
    • soft loose and high vascular material
    • produce AV classes of elements of blood
    • Function:
    • 1.2 Hemopoeisis
    • 2.2 Reticular cells
    •     colony stimulating factors for WBCs
    • immunity
    • in meduallry
  108. Thymus
    • houses developing lymph
    • secretes hormones that regulate their activity
    • bilobed organ and is between sternum and aortic arch
    • Endocrine and lymph functions- immune system
    • 2 lobes
    • 1.2 divivded into lubules
    • 2.2 cortex- dense lymphocytes T cells go to medulla
    • 3.2 medulla- few lymphocytes
    • 4.2Reticular epithelial cells- thymosin, and thymopoieitn
  109. Blood thymus barrier
    • seals off cortex from medualla and surround blood vessels and lymph clusters in cortex
    • isolated developing lymph
    • produce signaling molecules
    • if no thymus then it will never develop immunity
  110. Lymph Nodes
    • Functions: Filter lymph and activiate B and T cells
    • Occur in regions
    • Coretx
    • 1.3lymph nodules have a germinal center and B cell differntiate
    •     when fighting pathogens they aquire germinal centers and B cell multiply
    • Medulla
    • 1.4 Medullay cords- lymphocytes, plasma cells, macrophages, reticular cells
    • numerous lymph organs
    • elongated structure
    • has several afferent lymph vessels leading to it
    • in cervical and axillary, thoracic, abdominal and intestinal, inguinal, and popliteal
  111. Tonsils
    • Lymp tissue at Pharynx entrance
    • FunctionsL guard ingested and inhaled pathogens
    • Tonsiliar crypts- deep pits in epithelium, trap bacteria- move into lymph tissue and destroyed
    • Food debris
    • many sets: Pharyngeal T, Paratine T largest and Lingual T
  112. Spleen
    • Largest lymph organ
    • Parenchyma
    • White pulp- lymphocytes/macrophages, quick immune repsonse
    • Red pulp- erythrocytes engorged and RBC graveyard
    • Help stabilize blood volume

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