ANATOMY FINAL

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jacwill
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204454
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ANATOMY FINAL
Updated:
2013-03-02 15:11:31
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CSUDH CSD SPRING
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Anatomy final
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  1. PHARYNGEAL MUSCULATURE:

    describe the soft palate
    • is a combo of muscle, aponeurosis, nerves and blood supply
    • covered by a mucous membrane lining
  2. PHARYNGEAL MUSCULATURE:

    describe the palatal aponeurosis
    • makes up the mid front portion of the soft palate
    • is an extension of the aponeurosis arising from the tensor veli palatine
    • divides around the musculus uvulae muscle and it serves as the point of insertion for other muscles of the soft palate
  3. PHARYNGEAL MUSCULATURE:

    what happens when we swallow
    the soft palate is elevated, closing off naso and oropharynx
  4. PHARYNGEAL MUSCULATURE:

    what happens to the soft palate for most speech
    the uvula is up with the exception of m, n and ng
  5. PHARYNGEAL MUSCULATURE:

    Velopharyngeal closure
    • the vp for speech production is not an all or nothing proposition
    • we designate sounds as nasal and nonnasal
    • the velum is a relatively slow and sluggish articulator
  6. PHARYNGEAL MUSCULATURE:

    swallowing requires that the velopharyngeal closure be...
    • 1. rapid
    • 2. occur high in the pharynx
    • 3. form a complete seal with the posterior pharyngeal wall
  7. PHARYNGEAL MUSCULATURE:

    how do the levator veli palatini and musculus uvulae work together to achieve velar elevation
    • 1. first anteriorly, then rapidly back toward the posterior wall of the pharynx at the oro nasopharynx junction
    • 2. medial movement of the lateral pharyngeal walls
    • 3. forward displacement of the posterior oropharyngeal wall

    closure is maintained for 1/2-1 second
  8. PHARYNGEAL MUSCULATURE:

    muscles of the pharynx are closely associated with the muscles of...
    • the tongue
    • muscles of the face
    • muscles of the larynx
  9. PHARYNGEAL MUSCULATURE:

    which constrictor is important for velopharyngeal function
    • the superior constrictor
    • when constricted the pharyngela muscles constrict the pharynx to assist in deglutition
  10. MASTICATION AND DEGLUTITION:

    mastication
    • the process of preparing food for swallowing
    • moving unchewed food onto the grinding surface of the teeth
    • chewing it
    • mixing it with saliva in prep for swallowing
  11. MASTICATION AND DEGLUTITION:

    deglutition
    the process of swallowing
  12. MASTICATION AND DEGLUTITION:

    what do mastication and deglutition require
    • integration of lingual, velar, pharyngeal and facial muscle movement with laryngeal adjustments and
    • respiratory control
  13. MASTICATION AND DEGLUTITION:

    during mastication and deglutition, all muscles inserting into the ------------- may participate in...
    • orbicularis oris
    • opening
    • closing
    • pursing
    • retracting the lips as food is received
  14. MASTICATION AND DEGLUTITION:

    what muscles are involved in moving food into position for chewing and prep bolus for swallow
    intrinsic and extrinsic tongue muscles
  15. MASTICATION AND DEGLUTITION:

    what do velar elevators do
    seal off the nasal cavity to prevent nasal regurgitation

    levator veli palatini, musculus uvulae
  16. MASTICATION AND DEGLUTITION:

    how many muscles are involved mastication and deglutition
    55 muscles plus of the cranial and spinal nerves that innervate them
  17. MASTICATION AND DEGLUTITION:

    bolus
    a ball of food or drink
  18. MASTICATION AND DEGLUTITION:

    perioral
    mouth region
  19. MASTICATION AND DEGLUTITION:

    css
    chewing, sucking, swallowing
  20. MASTICATION AND DEGLUTITION:

    gustation
    sense of taste
  21. MASTICATION AND DEGLUTITION:

    olfaction
    sense of smell
  22. MASTICATION AND DEGLUTITION:

    salivation
    • production and release of saliva into the oral cavity
    • important for taste, masti, and deglu
  23. MASTICATION AND DEGLUTITION:

    reflexes involved in swallowing
    • chewing reflex
    • cough reflex
    • gag (pharyngeal) reflex
    • pain reflex
    • respiration refelx
    • retch and vomit reflex
    • rooting and sucking reflex
    • tongue retract and elevate reflex
    • uvular or palatal reflex
  24. MASTICATION AND DEGLUTITION:

    the four stages of swallowing
    • 1. oral prep stage-prep food for the swallow
    • 2. oral stage-oral transit of bolus to pharynx
    • 3. pharyngeal stage-transit of bolus to esophagus
    • 4. esophageal stage-food is transported from ues to stomach
  25. MASTICATION AND DEGLUTITION:

    oral prep stage
    • begins outside the mouth with all senses
    • put food in mouth
    • tightly occlude lips to seal anterior opening
    • must breathe through nose so tongue bunches in the back and soft palate pulled down to keep food in oral cavity
    • tongue cups
    • food is ground up by mastication and lingual muscles
    • tongue keeps food in oral cavity sealing alveolar ridge
    • tongue holds food in place partially crushing food
    • tongue then begins moving the food onto grinding surface of teeth, pull food back to mix with saliva and then moves food forward again for more chewing
    • salivary glands secrete saliva to form bolus
    • facial muscles of buccal contract to keep from entering the lateral sulcus
  26. MASTICATION AND DEGLUTITION:

    oral stage
    • new sequence begins when bolus of food is finally ready to swallow
    • tongue base is elevated in the posterior during mastication now drops and pulls posteriorly
    • mastication stops
    • anterior tongue elevates to hard palate
    • squeeze bolus back toward faucial pillars
    • contact with faucial pillars, soft palate, posterior tongue base triggers reflexes
  27. MASTICATION AND DEGLUTITION:

    pharyngeal stage
    • new sequence begins with elevation of the soft palate which has been depressed, oro is now separated from naso
    • respiration ceases reflexively at this point
    • velum elevated, tongue retracted, lips sealed
    • food entering the pharynx so AIRWAY MUST BE PROTECTED
    • vocal folds tightly adduct
    • false vf constrict
    • epiglottis is depressed via the aryepiglottic muscles
    • airway sealed, larynx moves up and forward as a unit
    • epiglottis covers the laryngeal aditus AND cricopharyngeus muscle of inferior constrictor relaxes
    • relaxing sphincter gives food a place to go
    • food propelled down pharynx toward the esophagus by means of constriction of the superior, middle and inferior pharyngeal constrictors
    • bolus gets to laryngopharynx and passes epigottis
    • bolus divides into two, passes either side of larynx through pyriform sinuses and then recombines at entrance of the esophagus
  28. MASTICATION AND DEGLUTITION:

    esophageal stage
    • purely reflexive, not under voluntary control
    • begins when bolus reaches the orifice of the esophagus, enters UES for transit to stomach
    • bolus moves through the esophagus to the LES via peristaltic contractions and gravity
    • cricopharyngeus will contract
    • larynx and soft palate will be depressed
    • respiration will begin again
    • normal swallow, respiration is suspended for a second
  29. MASTICATION AND DEGLUTITION:

    sensation
    associated with mastication and deglutition
  30. MASTICATION AND DEGLUTITION:

    gustation
    • complex and critical component of CSS
    • taste drive the desire to continue eating which fulfills nutritional requirements of the body
    • taste receptors consist of chemorecepters respond to chemicals
  31. MASTICATION AND DEGLUTITION:

    5 basic tastes
    • sweet
    • salty
    • sour
    • bitter
    • umami

    tastes can be sensed all over the tongue
  32. MASTICATION AND DEGLUTITION:

    olfaction
    • smell plays vital role in appetites and taste
    • if your nose is plugged food tastes flat
    • olfactory sensors in the epithelial lining of the upper posterior nasal cavity
  33. MASTICATION AND DEGLUTITION:

    tactile
    sense of touch mediated by mechanoreceptors-sensitive to physical contact
  34. MASTICATION AND DEGLUTITION:

    salivation response
    • related to taste, smell and noxious stimulation
    • the production and release of saliva into the oral cavity (not sensory but motor)
    • essential component of taste, mastication and deglutition
    • produced in parotid, submandibular and sublingual glands
  35. ARTICULATION AND RESONATION:

    Lips
    what is the main objective of obicularis oris
    obicularis oris primarily responsible for ensuring a labial seal but other muscles insert into it
  36. ARTICULATION AND RESONATION:


    Lips
    which lip achieves greater velocity and force
    • lower lip and seems to most of the work in the lip closure, also faster and stronger than the upper lip
    • extra force comes from the mentalis
    • lower lip attached to mandible which is a moveable articulator
    • lower lip can rapidly alter its rate of closure to accommodate variety of jaw positions
  37. ARTICULATION AND RESONATION:

    Lips
    we are "amazingly resistant" to...
    interference with the articulatory mechanism
  38. ARTICULATION AND RESONATION:

    Mandible
    what does the mandible do
    • assists the lips
    • changes position for tongue movement
    • helps achieve a tight lip seal
    • very important articulator-supports the action/role of the lips, tongues and teeth in touching articulation targets in the maxilla like the teeth, alveolar ridges and hard palate
    • paralysis of muscles of mastication can be devastating to speech intelligibility
  39. ARTICULATION AND RESONATION:

    Mandible
    the function of the muscles of _________ is different for _______ and _________.
    mastication, speech, chewing
  40. ARTICULATION AND RESONATION:

    Tongue
    what is so special about the tongue
    • most important of the articulators
    • involved in the production of the majority of phonemes in English
  41. ARTICULATION AND RESONATION:

    Tongue
    tip elevation
    • primary responsibilty of the superior longitudinal muscles 
    • when fibers shortened the tip and lateral margins of tongue pull up
  42. ARTICULATION AND RESONATION:

    Tongue
    tip depression
    • primarily inferior longitudinal 
    • course along the lateral margins of the lower tongue making them perfectly suited to pull the tip and sides of the tongue down
  43. ARTICULATION AND RESONATION:

    Tongue
    tip deviation, left and right
    • deviation of the tongue tip to the left requires the simultaneous contraction of the left superior and inferior longitudinal muscles
    • asymmetrical contraction results in asymmetrical movement of the tongue tip
  44. ARTICULATION AND RESONATION:

    Tongue
    lateral margins relax
    lateral margins must be relaxed to produce the /l/ while tongue is protruded into the anterior alveolar ridge and slightly elevated
  45. ARTICULATION AND RESONATION:

    Tongue
    narrowing
    transverse fibers coursing from the median fibrous septum to the lateral margins
  46. ARTICULATION AND RESONATION:

    Tongue
    central tongue grooving
    genioglossus and vertical muscles
  47. ARTICULATION AND RESONATION:

    Tongue
    tongue protrusion
    posterior genioglossus, vertical, and transverse muscles
  48. ARTICULATION AND RESONATION:

    Tongue
    tongue retraction
    anterior genioglossus, superior and inferior longitudinal muscles
  49. ARTICULATION AND RESONATION:

    Tongue
    posterior tongue elevation
    palatoglossus muscles and transverse
  50. ARTICULATION AND RESONATION:

    Tongue
    tongue body depression
    contraction of the entire genioglossus

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