Proteins and Tumor Markers

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Proteins and Tumor Markers
2013-05-03 01:28:08
Clinical Significance Major Proteins

Clinical Significance of the Major Proteins
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  1. What protein is an indicator of nutritional status and is one of the proteins that transports thyroid hormones?
  2. What causes a decrease in prealbumin?
    • Liver disorders
    • Inflammation
    • Malignancy
    • Poor nutrition
  3. What causes an increase of prealbumin?
    • Steroid therapy
    • Chronic renal failure
    • Alcoholism
  4. Where is albumin synthesized?
  5. What protein is in the highest concentration of all the proteins?
  6. What are the roles of albumin?
    • Binds many analytes for transport in blood
    • Significantly contributes to plasma osmotic pressure
  7. What causes a decrease in albumin?
    • Liver disorders (decrease production)
    • Gastrointestinal disease associated with malabsorption
    • Muscle-wasting disease
    • Severe burns caused by loss
    • Renal disease cause by loss
    • Starvation
    • Malnutrition
  8. What causes an increase in albumin?
    Dehydration (relative increase)
  9. What protein is an acute-phase reactant and a protease inhibitor that neutralizes trypsin-type enzymes that can damage structural proteins?
  10. What causes a decrease in alpha1-Antitrypsin?
    • Emphysema-associated pulmonary disease
    • Severe juvenile hepatic disorders that may result in cirrhosis
  11. What causes and increase of alpha1-Antitrypsin?
    Inflammatory disorders
  12. What protein is synthesized during gestation in the yolk sac and liver of the fetus, peaking at 13 weeks and declining at 34 weeks?
    alpha1-Fetoprotein (AFP)
  13. What causes an increase in AFP?
    • In maternal serum - Neural tube defects, spina bifida, fetal distress
    • In adults -  Hepatocellular carcinoma and gonadal tumors
  14. What causes a decrease in AFP?
    • Down syndrome
    • Trisomy 18
  15. What protein is an acute phase reactant and binds to basic drugs?
    alpha1-Acid glycoprotein (orosomucoid)
  16. What causes an increase in alpha1-Acid glycoprotein (orosomucoid)?
    • Inflammatory disorders (rheumatoid arthritis)
    • Pneumonia
    • Conditions with cell proliferation
  17. What causes a decrease in alpha1-Acid glycoprotein (orosomucoid)?
    Nephrotic syndrome
  18. What protein is an alpha2-globulin that binds free hemoglobin and is an acute phase reactant?
  19. What causes an increase of Haptoglobin?
    • Inflammatory conditions
    • Burns
    • Trauma
  20. What causes a decrease in Haptoglobin?
    Intravascular hemolysis (formation of a haptoglobin-hemoglobin complex for removal by the liver)
  21. What is an acute phase reactant that is an alpha2-globumin, copper-containing protein with enzymatic activity?
  22. What causes an increase in ceruloplasmin?
    • Pregnancy
    • Inflammatory disorders
    • Malignancies
    • Intake of oral estrogen
    • Oral contraceptives
  23. What causes a decrease in ceruloplasmin?
    • Wilson disease
    • Malnutrition
    • Malabsorption
    • Severe liver disease
  24. What protein is a proteolytic enzyme inhibitor that inhibits thrombin, trypsin, and pepsin?
  25. What causes an increase in alpha2-Macroglobulin?
    • Nephrotic syndrome
    • Contraceptive use
    • Pregnancy
    • Estrogen therapy
  26. What causes a decrease in alpha2-Macroglobulin?
    • Acute inflammatory disorders
    • Prostatic cancer
    • Decreased markedly in acute pancreatitis
  27. What protein is a beta-globulin that transports iron?
  28. What causes a decrease in transferrin?
    • Infections
    • Liver disease
    • Nephrotic syndrome
  29. What causes an increase in transferrin?
    • Iron-deficiency anemia
    • Pregnancy
  30. What protein is a beta-globulin that is an acute-phase reactant?
    CRP (C-Reactive Protein)
  31. What causes an increase in CRP?
    • Tissue necrosis
    • Rheumatic fever
    • Infections
    • Myocardial infarction
    • Rheumatoid arthritis
    • Gout
  32. What proteins are antibodies?
  33. What are the 5 major classes of immunoglobulins?
    • IgG
    • IgA
    • IgM
    • IgE
    • IgD
  34. Where are immunoglobulins synthesized and why?
    Synthesized in plasma cells as an immune response
  35. Which one of the immunoglobulins will be increased in Multiple Myeloma?
    • Monoclonal gammophathy
    • IgG
    • IgA
    • IgM
  36. Which immunoglobulin can cross the placenta?
  37. What causes an increase in IgG?
    • Liver disorders
    • Infections
    • Collagen disease
  38. What causes a decrease in IgG?
    • Presence of increased susceptibility to infection
    • When monoclonal gammopathy is associated with an increase in another immunoglobulin
  39. What immunoglobulin increases after birth?
  40. What causes an increase in IgA?
    • Liver disorders
    • Infections
    • Autoimmune disease
  41. What causes a decrease in IgA?
    • Inhibited protein synethsis
    • Hereditary immune disorders
  42. What immunoglobulin cannot cross the placenta and is made by the fetus?
  43. What causes an increase in IgM?
    • Bacterial, viral, and fungal infections
    • Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia
  44. What causes a decrease in IgM?
    • Renal diseases associated with protein loss
    • Immunodeficiency disorders
  45. What causes an increase in IgD?
    • Liver disorders
    • Infections
    • Connective tissue disorders
  46. What causes an increase in IgE?
    • Allergies
    • Asthma
    • hay fever
    • Parasitic infections
  47. What protein is used to predict the risk of premature birth?
    • Fibronectin
    • (test is Fetal Fibronectin)