19.1.2

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19.1.2
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2013-03-02 14:19:46
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  1. Technological Changes and New Forms of Industrial Organization
    1770s
    a.      1770s-1780s: cotton textile industry took first major step toward Industrial Revolution by creating modern factory
  2. Technological Changes and New Forms of Industrial Organization
    The Cotton Industry
    •                                                               i.      Britain surfed ahead in production of cheap cotton goods using traditional methods of cottage industry
    • 1.      Developed flying shuttleà faster weaving on a loomà double outputà shortages in yarn until James Hargreaves’s spinning jennyà allowed spinners to produce yarn in greater quantities
  3. Technological Changes and New Forms of Industrial Organization
    Richard Arkwright
    1.      Richard Arkwright’s water frame spinning machine, powered by water or horse, and Samuel Crompton’s mule, which combined aspects of the water frame and the spinning jenny, increased yarn production even more
  4. Technological Changes and New Forms of Industrial Organization
    Edmund Cartwright
    • 1.      Edmund Cartwright’s power loom= weaving of cloth to catch up with the spinning of yarn
    • a.      Early power looms= inefficient, enabling home-based hand-loom weavers to prosper until mid 1820s, when replaced by new machines
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      1813: 2400 power looms in operation in Great Britain; 14,150 in 1820; 100,000 in 1833, 250,000 in 1850
    • 1.      In 1820s, 250,000 hand-loom weaversà 3000 (1860)
  5. Technological Changes and New Forms of Industrial Organization
    Water Frame
    • 1.      Water frame, Crompton’s mule, and power loomsà new opportunities for entrepreneurs
    • a.      More efficient to bring workers to machines and organize their labor collectively in factories located next to rivers and streams, the sources of power for machines, than leave workers dispersed in cottages
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Concentration of laborers and families to live in new towns that grew up around factories
  6. Technological Changes and New Forms of Industrial Organization
    Early Devices
    •                                                               i.      Early devices used to speed up process of weaving were products of weavers and spinners (artisan tinkerers)
    • 1.      But the subsequent expansion of the cotton industry and ongoing demand for more cotton goods= pressure for new, complex technology
    • a.      Invention that pushed the cotton industry to greater heights of productivity= steam engine
  7. Technological Changes and New Forms of Industrial Organization
    The Steam Engine
    •                                                               i.      Revolutionized production of cotton goods and allowed factory system to spread to other production areas, securing whole new industries
    •                                                             ii.      Ensured triumph of Industrial Revolution
  8. Technological Changes and New Forms of Industrial Organization
    James Watt
    •                                                               i.      1760s: James Watt created an engine powered by steam that could pump water from mines 3x faster than previous engines
    • 1.      1782, he enlarged the possibilities of the steam engine when he developed a rotary engine that could turn a shaft and drive machinery
  9. Technological Changes and New Forms of Industrial Organization
    Steam Power
    • a.      Steam power now applied to spinning and weaving cotton, and before long, cotton mills using steam engines were multiplying across Britain
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      steam engines fired by coal= no need to be near riversà greater flexibility in location choice
  10. Technological Changes and New Forms of Industrial Organization
    New Boost
    •                                                               i.      new boost given to cotton textile production by technological changes apparent
    • 1.      1760: Britain imported 2.5 million pounds of raw cotton, which was farmed out to cottage industries
    • 2.      1787: British imported 22 mil pounds of cotton, mostly spun on machines, some powered by water in large mills
  11. Technological Changes and New Forms of Industrial Organization
    1840
    • 1.      1840: 366 million lbs of cotton
    • a.      By this time, most cotton industry employees worked in factories
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Cheapest labor in India couldn't compete in quality/ quantity with Britain
    • 1.      British cotton goods sold everywhere in the world
  12. Technological Changes and New Forms of Industrial Organization
    Britain
    • a.      In Britain itself, cheap cotton cloth allowed poor to wear undergarments, long a luxury of the rich, who could afford expensive linen cloth
    •                                                                                                                                                                                                               i.      Cotton clothing was tough, comfy, cheap, and easily washable
  13. Technological Changes and New Forms of Industrial Organization
    Steam engine=indispensible
    •                                                               i.      Steam engine= indispensible
    •                                                             ii.      Unlike horses, it was a tireless sources of power and depended for fuel on substance—coal—that seemed unlimited in quantity
    •                                                           iii.      Success led to need for more coal and expansion in coal production
    • 1.      1815-1850: British output of coal quadrupled
    • New processes using coal furthered iron industry
  14. The Iron Industry: iron ore
    •                                                               i.      Transformed during Industrial Revolution
    •                                                             ii.      Britain had large resources of iron ore, but (18th) process of producing iron changed little since Middle Ages and depended heavily on charcoal
    • 1.      Early 18th: new methods of smelting iron ore to produce cast iron based on use of coke or “courke” made by slowly burning coal
    • a.      Coke could heat iron ore faster than charcoal= higher amounts
  15. The Iron Industry: better quality
    •                                                               i.      Still, better quality of iron not possible until 1780s, when Henry Cost developed process called puddling in which coke was used to burn away impurities in pig iron (smelting iron ore with coke) to produce an iron of high quality called wrought iron
    • 1.      Wrought iron, with lower carbon content, was malleable and able to withstand strainà boom in British iron industry
  16. The Iron Industry
    Development of iron industry
    •                                                               i.      Development of iron industry was response to demand for new machines
    • 1.      High-quality wrought iron produced by Cort process made it most widely used metal until production of cheaper steel in 1860s
    • a.      Growing supply of less costly metal encouraged use of machinery in other industries, most noticeably in new means of transportation
  17. A New Revolution in Transportion
    •                                                               i.      18th century: expansion of transportation facilities in Britain as entrepreneurs realized the need for more efficient means of moving resources and goods
    • 1.      Turkpike trusts constructed new roads and (1760-1830) a network of canals were built
    • a.      Roads and canals overtaken with new form of transportationà railroads
  18. Railway
    • 1.      Got start in mining operations in Germany (1500) and in British coal mines after 1600, where small handcarts filled with coal were pushed along parallel wooden rails
    • a.      Rails reduced friction, enabling horses to haul more substantial loads
  19. 1700: rails
    1.      1700: some entrepreneurs began to replace wooden rails with cast-iron rails, and by early 19th century, railways—still dependent on horsepower—were common in British mining and industrial districts
  20. Development of steam and railways
    • 1.      Development of steamà transformed railways
    • 2.      1804: Richard Trevithick pioneered the first steam-powered locomotive on an industrial rail line in southern Wales
    • a.      Pulled 10 tons of ore and 70 people at 5 mphà better locomotives
  21. George Stephenson
    • 1.      Engines built by George Stephenson and son proved superior, and it was in their workshops in Newcastle-upon-Tyne that locomotives for first modern railways in Britain were built
    • a.      George Stephenson’s Rocket used on first public railway line, which opened in 1830, extending 32 miles
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      It sped along at 16 mph and in 20 years, locomotives reached 50 mph
  22. New companies
    • 1.      During same period (20 years), new companies formed to build additional railroads as the infant industry proved successful both technically and financially
    • a.      1840: Britain had 2000 miles of railroad
    • b.      1850: 6000 miles around country
  23. Railroad contribution
    • 1.      Railroad contributed to maturing of Industrial Revolution
    • a.      Railroad’s demands for coal and ironà growth of industries
    • b.      British supremacy in civil and mechanical engineering was based on skills acquired in railway building
    • c.       Huge capital demands necessary for railway construction encouraged new group of middle class investors to invest their money in joint-stock companies
  24. Railway construction
    • 1.      Railway constructionà new opportunities, esp. for farm laborers and peasants, who usually found work outside local villages
    • 2.      Cheaper and faster means of transportation effected growth of industrial economy
  25. Reducing prices
    • a.      By reducing price of goods, larger markets created
    • b.      Increased sales necessitated more factories and machineryà reinforced self-sustaining nature of Industrial Revolution, which marked fundamental break with traditional European economy
  26. Great productivity of IR
    • 1.      Great productivity of Industrial Revolutionàentrepreneurs reinvest profits in new capital equipment,, further expanding productive capacity of economy
    • a.      Continuous/ rapid self-sustaining economic growth fundamental
  27. Railroad=perfect symbol
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Railroad= perfect symbol
    • 1.      Ability to transport goods and people quickly provided visible confirmation of a new sense of power
    • a.      When railway engineers penetrated mountains with tunnels and spanned chasms with bridges, contemporaries felt power over nature not felt before
  28. The Industrial Factory
    •                                                               i.      Product of cotton industry: factoryà chief means of organizing labor for the new machine
    • 1.      As workplace shifted from artisan’s shop and the peasant’s cottage to the factory, the latter wasn’t viewed as just a larger work unit
    • a.      Employers hired workers who no longer owned means of production but were paid wages to run the machines
  29. New Discipline
    •                                                               i.      From beginning, factories demanded a new type of discipline from employees
    • 1.      Factory owners couldn’t afford to let machinery alone
    • a.      Workers forced to work regular hours in shifts to keep machines producing at a steady pace for maximum output
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      This represented an adjustment for early factory laborers
  30. Preindustrial workers
    •                                                               i.      Preindustrial workers not used to timed format
    • 1.      Agricultural laborers had irregular hours before; hectic work at harvest time followed by weeks of inactivity
    • 2.      Even in cottage industries, weavers and spinners who worked at home fulfilled weekly quotas by working around clock for two or three days and then proceeding at leisurely pace until next week’s demands required non-stop work
  31. Factory owners had difficult task
    1.      Had to create a system of time-work discipline that would accustom employees to working regular, unvarying hours during which they performed a set number of tasks over and over again as efficiently as possible
  32. Work
    • 1.      Work was repetitive and boring, and factory owners resorted to tough methods  to accomplish goals
    • a.      Factory regulations were minute and detailed
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Adult workers fined for minor infractions, like lateness or drunkenness
    • 1.      Drunkenness seen as offensive due to bad example for younger workers and also courted disaster amid dangerous machinery
  33. Dismissals and Fines
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Employers found that dismissals and fines worked well for adult employees
    • 1.      In a time when a great population growth had produced large numbers of unskilled workers, dismissal could be disastrous
    • a.      Children less likely to understand the implications of dismissal , so they were sometimes disciplined more directly—by beating 
  34. Efforts of Factory Owners
    • 1.      Efforts of factory owners in early Industrial Revolution to impose new set of values reinforced by new evangelical churches
    • a.      Methodism emphasized that people “reborn in Jesus” must forgo immoderation and follow a disciplined path
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Laziness and wasteful habits were sinful
    •                                                                                                                                     ii.      Acceptance of hardship in this life paved ways for joys of the next
  35. Evangelical values
    a.      Evangelical values paralleled the efforts of the new factory owners to instill laborers with their own middle-class values of hard work, discipline, and thrift 
  36. Success?
    • 1.      One crucial sense, the early industrialists proved successful
    • a.      As 19th century progressed, the 2nd and 3rd generations of workers viewed regular working week as a natural way of life
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      It was an attitude that made possible Britain’s incredible economic growth in that century

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