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  1. Industrial Revolution in the US
    • a.      1800: US= agrarian with no cities over 100,000 people and 6/7 were farmers
    • b.      1860: growth from 5-30 million people, half in Appalachian Mountains
    •                                                               i.      34 states; 9 cities with 100,000+; 50% farmers
    •                                                             ii.      Experienced Industrial Revolution and urbanization
  2. Machinery
    • a.      Machinery to production applied (borrowed from Brits)
    •                                                               i.      Brit immigrant: Samuel Slater
    • 1.      Established first textile factory using water powered spinning machines in Rhode Island in 1790
  3. 1813
    •                                                               i.      1813: factories with power looms adopted from British, but soon Americans surpassed them
    • 1.      Harpers Ferry arsenal built muskets with interchangeable parts
    • a.      Final product put together easily; cheaper
    • b.      Revolutionized production by saving labor
  4. Need for Transportation
    •                                                               i.      US=large
    •                                                             ii.      Lack of good internal transportation system limited economic development by making transport of goods expensive
    • 1.      Deficiency remedied by steamboat, railroad, and new roads and canals
    • a.      Steamboat eased transportation in Great Lakes, Atlantic Coastal Waters, and rivers
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Important to Mississippi valley
  5. Most important: railroad
    •                                                               i.      Most important: railroad: 100 miles (1830)-27000 (1860)
    • 1.      Transportation revolution turned US into single massive market for manufactured goods of Northeast, early center of American industrialization
  6. Labor Force
    •                                                               i.      Labor from rural areas
    •                                                             ii.      US didn’t have large amount of craftspeople, but had growing farming population, where there wasn’t enough land
    • 1.      Some of excess population went west, others went into factories of New England
    • a.      Women: more than 80% of work force
  7. Labor Force: Massachusetts
    • a.      In Massachusetts mill towns, company boarding houses gave rooms for women who worked several years before marriage
    • b.      Outside Mass., factory owners sought entire families
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      When decline in rural births threatened to dry up labor pool in 1830s and ‘40s, European immigrants replaced women and children
  8. Unskilled women, children, and immigrants
    •                                                               i.      Women, children, and immigrants were all unskilled
    • 1.      This unskilled labor pushed American industrialization into capital- intensive pattern
    • 2.      Factory owners invested on machines that could produce in quantity at hands of untrained works
    • a.      In Britain, the pace was never rapid because Britain’s supply of skilled artisans made it more profitable to pursue labor intensive economy
  9. 1860: US
    •                                                               i.      1860: US on way to being industrial
    • 1.      NE: most industrialized section of the country; per capita income was 40% higher than national average
    • a.      Diets were better and more varied
    • b.      Machine-made clothing more abundant
  10. Industrialization
    •                                                               i.      Industrialization didn’t lessen economic disparities
    • 1.      Despite belief in myth of social mobility based on equality of economic opportunity, richest 10% of population held 70-80% wealth, unlike 1800 (50%)
    • a.      Although rich got richer, the poor didn’t get poorer
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