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  1. The Growth of Cities
    • a.      Cities and towns grew dramatically in first half of 19th (related to industrialization)
    •                                                               i.      Cities were first centers for princely courts, government and military offices, churches, and commerce
  2. 1850:
    •                                                               i.      1850: esp. in Great Britain and Belgium, cities rapidly became places for manufacturing an d industry
    • 1.      With steam engine, entrepreneurs could locate their manufacturing plants in urban centers where they had easy access to transportation facilities and unemployed people from the country looking for work 
  3. 1800 and London
    • a.      1800: Great Britain had one major city, London with one million people, and six cities between 50-100,000
    •                                                               i.      Fifty years later: London: 2.363 million and 9 cities: 100,000; 18 cities: 50-100,000
    • 1.      These 28 cities= 5.7 million residents (1/5 of total British population)
  4. Brit Population
                                                                  i.      More than 50% of British population lived in towns and cities by 1850à forced British to become food importer rather than exporter as agriculture people declined to 20%
  5. Urban population
    • a.      Urban population grew on Continent, but less dramatically
    •                                                               i.      Paris: 547,000 in 1800 (2 French cities with 100,000)
    •                                                             ii.      1851: Paris: one million; Lyons and Marseilles under 200,000
    •                                                           iii.      German and Austrian lands had three with 100,000+
    • 1.      Fifty years later: five, but Vienna grew to 440,000
    •                                                           iv.      Urbanization not as rapid
  6. Urban Living Conditions in the Early Industrial Revolution
    •                                                               i.      Dramatic growth of cities in first half of 19thà miserable living conditions for inhabitants  as it increased problems and wretched conditions
    • 1.      Wealthy, middle-class inhabitants, insulated (isolated) selves , living in suburbs  with individual houses and gardens
    • 2.      Inner ring of city= small row houses, some with gardens, of artisans and lower middle class
    • 3.      Center: row houses of industrial workers
    • a.      Rooms small= overcrowded
  7. Sanitary conditions
    • 1.      Due to lack of municipal direction, city streets used as sewers and open drains
    • a.      Unable to deal with human waste, cities smelly/ unhealthy
    • 2.      Burning of coal blackened towns and cities with soot
    • 3.      Towns and cities were deathtraps= deaths outnumbered births in most large cities in first half of 19th, only a constant influx of people from countryside kept them alive and growing 
  8. Adulteration of food
    •                                                               i.      Adding to deterioration of urban life=adulteration of food
    • 1.      Consumers defrauded
    • a.      Alum made bread look white and more expensive
    • b.      Beer and mil watered down
    • c.       Red lead, despite poison, was substituted for pepper
    • 2.      Government did nothing
    • a.      In Britain, 1875: effective food and drug act passed
  9. Social Investigations
    •                                                               i.      Britain, Poor Law Commission produced detailed reports
    • 1.      Investigators struck by physically and morally debilitating effects of urban industrial life on poor
    • a.      They saw that young working-class men were shorter and scrawnier than sons of middle class families and much more subject to disease
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Alarmed by what they considered the moral consequences of prostitution, crime, and sexual immorality
  10. Urban Reformers
    •                                                               i.      Saw danger to society and well-being
    •                                                             ii.      James Kay-Shuttleworth: called conditions volcanic elements may destroy society
    • 1.      Some irresponsible: why should workers be held responsible for fate
  11. Edwin Chadwick
    • 1.      Background in law and became obsessed with eliminating poverty and squalor of metropolitan area
    • 2.      Became civil servant and assigned to investigatory commissions
    • 3.      As Secretary of Poor Law Commission, he searched for facts about living conditions of working classes
  12. Report  on the Condition of the Labouring Population of Great Britain
    • a.      After 3 years investigating, he summarized results in Report  on the Condition of the Labouring Population of Great Britain
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Various forms of epidemic were caused by impurities decomposing animal and vegetables, by damp and filth, etc.
    •                                                                                                                                     ii.      Still, they could be eliminated through removal and drainage
  13. What did Chadwick advocate?
    a.      In other words, he advocated a system of modern sanitary reforms consisting of efficient sewers and supply of piped warà (6 years later) Britain’s first Public Health Act created by the national Board of Health  for establishing modern sanitary systems
  14. Middle-class
    •                                                               i.      Many middle- class citizens willing to support public health reforms of men like Chadwick because of fear of cholera
    • 1.      Outbreaks ravaged Europe in 1830s and rampant in overcrowded areas
    • a.      With conviction that filth spreads disease came support for call of new public health measures
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2013-03-02 21:12:41
HON 122

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