Neuro Exam 2.8

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brau2308
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204485
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Neuro Exam 2.8
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2013-03-02 17:26:48
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neurology neuroscience neuroanatomy
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review of lecture 8 for exam 2
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  1. What does the rhombencephalon become?
    hindbrain
  2. What is the rhombencephalon a part of?
    brainstem
  3. What are the two vesicles of the rhomencephalon?
    • metencephalon
    • mylencephalon
  4. What does the metencephalon become?
    • pons
    • cerebellum
  5. Where is the pons in relation to the hindbrain?
    most rostral part of hindbrain
  6. What does the ventral surface of the pons have?
    horizontal striations
  7. The pons is attached indirectly to what structure?
    cerebellum
  8. What indirectly attaches the pons to the cerebellum?
    middle cerebellar peduncles
  9. The pons is separated from the medulla by what?
    inferior pontine sulcus
  10. The pons is separated from the midbrain by what?
    superior pontine sulcus
  11. What is on the midline of the ventral surface of the pons?
    basilar sulcus
  12. What is the basilar sulcus?
    depressed area on pons
  13. What does the basilar sulcus contain?
    • basilar artery of the circle of Wilis
    • product of 2 vertebral aa fusing
  14. What does the basilar artery bifurcate into?
    2 posterior cerebral aa
  15. What is b/w the dorsal surfaces of the pons and cerebellum?
    4th ventricle
  16. What are the two parts of the pons?
    • dorsal pons
    • ventral pons
  17. What is the dorsal pons referred to as?
    tegmentum
  18. What is the ventral pons referred to as?
    pons proper
  19. Which part of the pons is smaller?
    dorsal pons (tegmentum)
  20. Which part of the pons has transverse fibers?
    ventral pons (pons proper)
  21. What is the tegmentum continuous with?
    midbrain and medulla
  22. What 4 types of things are found in the tegmentum?
    • ascending sensory pathways
    • pontine reticular nuclei
    • cranial nerve nuclei
    • physiological functional areas
  23. Name the ascending sensory pathways of the tegmentum:
    • medial lemniscus
    • lateral lemniscus
    • trigeminal lemniscus
    • spinal lemniscus
    • medial longitudinal fasciculus
  24. What does the pontine reticular nuclei deal with?
    arousal and sleep
  25. What does the pontine reticular nuclei contain?
    diffuse small, nuclear structures
  26. Which cranial nerve nuclei are involved with the tegmentum?
    V, VI, VII, VIII
  27. Facial motor nucleus (VII)
    • mm of facial expression
    • facial N has both motor and sensory function
  28. Which CNs are involved with the salivatory nuclei?
    VII and IX
  29. Where is the salivatory nuclei?
    superior in pons and inferior in superior portion of medulla
  30. What type of NS funciton is the salivatory nuclei?
    parasympathetic function of NS in context to CN VII
  31. What does the salivatory nuclei innervate?
    smooth muscle cells or glands (sublingual, mucus, lacrimal, and submandibular glands)
  32. What type of function is the salivatory nuclei?
    motor nucleu--efferent response
  33. What does the salivatory nuclei contain?
    cell bodies of preganglionic parasympathetic nn
  34. Which CNs are involved with the solitary nucleus?
    VII, IX, and X
  35. Where is the solitary nucleus located?
    tegmentum of medulla (here b/c facial N likes to use it)
  36. What is the solitary nucleus involved with?
    sensory function: taste innervation for anterior 2/3 of tongue, CN VII
  37. Which CNs are involved with the spinal nucleus of V?
    V, VII, IX, X
  38. Where is the spinal nucleus of V located?
    both pons and mostly medulla (at transition)
  39. What type of function does the spinal nucleus of V have?
    • sensory: involved w/ pain temperature, pressure, and crude touch (CN V)
    • sensory: pain, temeprature, pressure and crude touch in small area behind external ear (CN VII)
  40. What is the motor nucleus of the trigeminal nerve involved with?
    perceiving general sensations from head and neck
  41. What does the motor nucleus of the trigeminal nerve innervate?
    mm of mastication
  42. What 3 nerves does the motor nucleus of the trigeminal nerve use?
    • opthalmic (V-1)
    • maxillary (V-2)
    • mandibular (V-3)
  43. Where is the motor nucleus of the trigeminal nerve found?
    pons
  44. What is the function of the mesencephalic nucleus of V?
    sensory nucleus which receives proprioceptive info of head and neck
  45. What does the mesencephalic nucleus of V contain?
    1st order sensory neurons from skeletal mm (cell bodies in nuclei, unlike most which are in ganglia)
  46. Where is the mesencephalic nucleus of V?
    midbrain
  47. Which CNs are involved with chief sensory nucleus of V?
    V, VII, IX, X
  48. What is the chief sensory nucleus of V involved with?
    discrimination of fine touch (2-point discrimination)
  49. What does the abducent motor nucleus innervate?
    lateral rectus extrinsic eye muscles
  50. What is the cochlear portion of the vesticulocochlear nerve involved with?
    perception of hearing
  51. Where does the cochlear portion of the vestibulocochlear nerve originate?
    cochlea of inner ear --where we find dorsal and ventral cochlear nucleus
  52. What is the vestibulocochlear nerve involved with?
    equilibrium
  53. What is the vestibular nuclei involved with?
    equilibrium
  54. Where does the vestibular nuclei come from?
    semicircular canals of inner ear
  55. What does the vestibular nuclei communicate with?
    vestibular nerve
  56. Where is the vestibular nuclei located?
    tegmentum of pons
  57. What part of the pons is the pons proper?
    ventral pons
  58. What are the parts of the pons proper?
    • pontine nuclei
    • transverse fibers
    • longitudinal fibers
  59. Are the pontine nuclei large or small?
    small
  60. Are the pontine nuclei few or numerous?
    numerous
  61. What are the pontine nuclei involved with?
    giving pons striated appearance
  62. Where do the transverse fibers of the pons proper originate?
    with pontine nuclei
  63. What do the transverse fibers of the pons proper do?
    take info into cerebellum from the pons
  64. In the transverse fibers, when an UMN goes through the pons on their way to SC, the UMN send off what?
    collateral neurons
  65. The collateral processess synapse w/:
    transverse fibers, and the signal travels into cerebellum
  66. What do the transverse fibers of the pons proper communicate with?
    pontine nuclei
  67. The transverse fibers give rise to what?
    middle cerebellar peduncles
  68. What are the two parts of the middle cerebellar peduncles?
    • superficial transverse fibers
    • deep transverse fibers
  69. What separate the superficial and deep transverse fibers?
    longitudinal bundles
  70. Where are the longitudinal fibers?
    in b/w superficial and deep transverse fibers
  71. What are the 2 major groups of longitudinal fibers?
    • corticospinal tract
    • corticobulbar tract
  72. Corticospinal tract:
    made up of UMN, they are on their way to ventral horns of SC on contralateral side
  73. Corticobulbar tract:
    follows same pathway as corticospinal tract, synapse w/ LMN cell bodies in the brain stem w/ motor nuclei --on its way to motor nuclei of CNs
  74. What do the UMN of the longitudinal fibers synapse with?
    LMN in motor nuclei of CNs
  75. What are the General functions of the pons?
    • relay station b/w midbrain and medula
    • allows cerebellum to communicate w/ brainstem
    • very important w/ functions of reticular formation (sleep, arousal, alertness, circadian rhythms, consciousness, etc)
    • involved w/ CN activity
    • secondary respiratory system
    • primary sleep center

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