Neuro Exam 2.8
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Neuro Exam 2.8
neurology neuroscience neuroanatomy
review of lecture 8 for exam 2
What does the rhombencephalon become?
What is the rhombencephalon a part of?
What are the two vesicles of the rhomencephalon?
What does the metencephalon become?
Where is the pons in relation to the hindbrain?
most rostral part of hindbrain
What does the ventral surface of the pons have?
The pons is attached indirectly to what structure?
What indirectly attaches the pons to the cerebellum?
middle cerebellar peduncles
The pons is separated from the medulla by what?
inferior pontine sulcus
The pons is separated from the midbrain by what?
superior pontine sulcus
What is on the midline of the ventral surface of the pons?
What is the basilar sulcus?
depressed area on pons
What does the basilar sulcus contain?
basilar artery of the circle of Wilis
product of 2 vertebral aa fusing
What does the basilar artery bifurcate into?
2 posterior cerebral aa
What is b/w the dorsal surfaces of the pons and cerebellum?
What are the two parts of the pons?
What is the dorsal pons referred to as?
What is the ventral pons referred to as?
Which part of the pons is smaller?
dorsal pons (tegmentum)
Which part of the pons has transverse fibers?
ventral pons (pons proper)
What is the tegmentum continuous with?
midbrain and medulla
What 4 types of things are found in the tegmentum?
ascending sensory pathways
pontine reticular nuclei
cranial nerve nuclei
physiological functional areas
Name the ascending sensory pathways of the tegmentum:
medial longitudinal fasciculus
What does the pontine reticular nuclei deal with?
arousal and sleep
What does the pontine reticular nuclei contain?
diffuse small, nuclear structures
Which cranial nerve nuclei are involved with the tegmentum?
V, VI, VII, VIII
Facial motor nucleus (VII)
mm of facial expression
facial N has both motor and sensory function
Which CNs are involved with the salivatory nuclei?
VII and IX
Where is the salivatory nuclei?
superior in pons and inferior in superior portion of medulla
What type of NS funciton is the salivatory nuclei?
parasympathetic function of NS in context to CN VII
What does the salivatory nuclei innervate?
smooth muscle cells or glands (sublingual, mucus, lacrimal, and submandibular glands)
What type of function is the salivatory nuclei?
motor nucleu--efferent response
What does the salivatory nuclei contain?
cell bodies of preganglionic parasympathetic nn
Which CNs are involved with the solitary nucleus?
VII, IX, and X
Where is the solitary nucleus located?
tegmentum of medulla (here b/c facial N likes to use it)
What is the solitary nucleus involved with?
sensory function: taste innervation for anterior 2/3 of tongue, CN VII
Which CNs are involved with the spinal nucleus of V?
V, VII, IX, X
Where is the spinal nucleus of V located?
both pons and mostly medulla (at transition)
What type of function does the spinal nucleus of V have?
: involved w/ pain temperature, pressure, and crude touch (CN V)
: pain, temeprature, pressure and crude touch in small area behind external ear (CN VII)
What is the motor nucleus of the trigeminal nerve involved with?
perceiving general sensations from head and neck
What does the motor nucleus of the trigeminal nerve innervate?
mm of mastication
What 3 nerves does the motor nucleus of the trigeminal nerve use?
Where is the motor nucleus of the trigeminal nerve found?
What is the function of the mesencephalic nucleus of V?
sensory nucleus which receives proprioceptive info of head and neck
What does the mesencephalic nucleus of V contain?
1st order sensory neurons from skeletal mm (cell bodies in nuclei, unlike most which are in ganglia)
Where is the mesencephalic nucleus of V?
Which CNs are involved with chief sensory nucleus of V?
V, VII, IX, X
What is the chief sensory nucleus of V involved with?
discrimination of fine touch (2-point discrimination)
What does the abducent motor nucleus innervate?
lateral rectus extrinsic eye muscles
What is the cochlear portion of the vesticulocochlear nerve involved with?
perception of hearing
Where does the cochlear portion of the vestibulocochlear nerve originate?
cochlea of inner ear --where we find dorsal and ventral cochlear nucleus
What is the vestibulocochlear nerve involved with?
What is the vestibular nuclei involved with?
Where does the vestibular nuclei come from?
semicircular canals of inner ear
What does the vestibular nuclei communicate with?
Where is the vestibular nuclei located?
tegmentum of pons
What part of the pons is the pons proper?
What are the parts of the pons proper?
Are the pontine nuclei large or small?
Are the pontine nuclei few or numerous?
What are the pontine nuclei involved with?
giving pons striated appearance
Where do the transverse fibers of the pons proper originate?
with pontine nuclei
What do the transverse fibers of the pons proper do?
take info into cerebellum from the pons
In the transverse fibers, when an UMN goes through the pons on their way to SC, the UMN send off what?
The collateral processess synapse w/:
transverse fibers, and the signal travels into cerebellum
What do the transverse fibers of the pons proper communicate with?
The transverse fibers give rise to what?
middle cerebellar peduncles
What are the two parts of the middle cerebellar peduncles?
superficial transverse fibers
deep transverse fibers
What separate the superficial and deep transverse fibers?
Where are the longitudinal fibers?
in b/w superficial and deep transverse fibers
What are the 2 major groups of longitudinal fibers?
made up of UMN, they are on their way to ventral horns of SC on contralateral side
follows same pathway as corticospinal tract, synapse w/ LMN cell bodies in the brain stem w/ motor nuclei --on its way to motor nuclei of CNs
What do the UMN of the longitudinal fibers synapse with?
LMN in motor nuclei of CNs
What are the General functions of the pons?
relay station b/w midbrain and medula
allows cerebellum to communicate w/ brainstem
very important w/ functions of reticular formation (sleep, arousal, alertness, circadian rhythms, consciousness, etc)
involved w/ CN activity
secondary respiratory system
primary sleep center