Psycology Flashcards

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kjackson79
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204486
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Psycology Flashcards
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2013-03-03 00:21:33
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Psycology
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Exam 2 Flashcards
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  1. ACTIVATION SYNTHESIS
    To make sense of neural static
  2. NARCOLEPSY
    A sleep disorder characterized by uncontrollable sleep attacks
  3. CONTEXT EFFECTS
    The influences of the surrounding environment on perception; The tendency for information to be better recalled in the same context in which it was originally learned
  4. BOTTOM UP PROCESSING
    Analysis that begins with the sensory receptors and works up to the brain's integration of sensory information
  5. TOP DOWN PROCESSING
    Information processing guided by higher-level mental processes, as when we construct perceptions drawing on our experience and expectations
  6. PERCEPTION
    The process of organizing and interpreting sensory information, enabling us to recognize meaningful objects and events
  7. WITHDRAWAL
    The discomfort and distress that follow discontinuing the use of an addictive drug
  8. INSOMNIA
    Sleep abnormalities, including difficulty in falling asleep and wakefulness through the night
  9. PRIMING
    The activation, often unconsciously, of certain associations, thus predisposing one's perception, memory, or response
  10. PERCEPTIONAL ADAPTION
    In vision, the ability to adjust to an artificially displaced or even inverted visual field
  11. CHANGE BLINDNESS
    The tendency to fail to detect changes in any part of a scene to which we are not focusing our attention
  12. DIFFERENCE THRESHOLD
    The minimum difference between two stimuli required for detection 50 percent of the time (Noticeable difference)
  13. OPIATES
    Supress neural functioning, pupils contract, breathing slows, and lethargy sets in. Blissful pleasure replaces pain and anxiety
  14. PHYSIOLOGICAL FUNCTION
    To Develop and preserve pathways
  15. BRAIN REGIONS ASSOCIATED W/ REM SLEEP
    Motor cortex is active during REM sleep but brain-stem blocks its messages, leaving muscles relaxed, essentially paralyzed
  16. SENSORY ADAPTATION
    Sensitivity to prolonged stimulation tends to decline over time as an organism adapts to current conditions
  17. FEATURE DETECTORS
    Nerve cells in the brain that respond to specific features of the stimulus, such as shape, angle or movement
  18. MOTOR CUSES FOR DEPTH PERCEPTION
    Interposition, relatie size, relative height, relative motion, linear perspective, light & shadow
  19. SLEEP CYCLES
    Repeats itself every 90 minutes
  20. THEORIES REGARDING THE FUNCTION OF DREAMS
    5 theories as to why we dream. To satisfy our own wishes. To file away memories. To develop and preserve neural static. To reflect cognitive development
  21. EFFECTS OF EXPERIENCE
    Research on sensory restriction and restored vision show there is a critical period for some aspectgs of sensory and perceptual development
  22. EFFECTS OF PERCEPTUAL SET
    Mental predisposition that functions as a lens through which we perceive the world
  23. BINOCULAR CUES FOR DEPTH PERCEPTION
    • Convergence (how much do the 2 eyes have to rotate in the sockets to see an object)
    • Binocular disparity (because eyes are a few inches apart, they project different looking images on each retina)
  24. GESTALT PRINCIPLES OF PERCEPTION, FIGURE/ GROUND, PROXIMITY, CLOSURE ETC.
    Gestalt psychologist described principles by which the brain organizes fragments of sensory data into gestalts, or meaningful forms
  25. GLAND/ HORMONE CHANGES RELATED TO SLEEP
    • Bright lights in the morning activates light sensitive retinal proteins
    • Retinal proteins control the circadian clock by triggering signals to the brain's CSN
    • The brains CSN causes the brain's pineal gland to decrease the production of melatonin in the morning
  26. BRAIN WAVE PATTERS DURING SLEEP
    • Alpha waves; relatively slow brain waves of relaxed, awake state
    • Stage 1 Irregular brain waves
    • Stage 2 Periodic appearance of sleep spindles
    • Stages 3 & 4 Brain starts to emit large slow delta waves associated w/ sleep and increases in stage 4
  27. ORGANIZATION OF THE EYE INCLUDING FUNCTIONS
    Light-energy particles enter the eye> focused by a lens> strike the eye's inner surface, the retina> retina's light sensitive rods and color sensitive cones convert the light energy into neural impulses> after processing by bipolar and ganglion cells> travel through the optic nerves to the brain
  28. NATURE OF REM SLEEP (INCLUDING EYE MOVEMENT, MUSCLE RELAXATION)
    • Heart rate rises, breathing becomes rapid and irregular and evey half minute or so eyes dart around in momentary bursts of activity
    • Also known as paradoxical sleep, because the muscles are relaxed
  29. BIOLOGICAL, PSYCHOLOGICAL AND SOCIOCULTURAL EXPLANATIONS FOR PSYCHOACTIVE DRUG USE
    • Biological influences: Genetic predispositions variations in neurotransmitter systems
    • Psychological influences: lacing sense of purpose, significant stress, psychlogical disorders such as depression
    • Social-cultural influences: urban environment cultural attitude toward drug use, peer influences
  30. SHAPE AND COLOR CONTANCIES
    • Through shape and size consistencies, we perceive familiar objects as unchanging in shape or size despite their changing retinal images
    • Knowing an objects sizes gives us clues to distance
    • Color constancy is our ability to perceive consistent color in objects even though the lighting and wavvelengths shift
  31. SENSATION
    The process by which our sensory receptors and nervous system receive and represent stimulus energies from our environment
  32. MARIJUANA
    Hallucinogen; enhanced sensation of relief of pain, distortion of time relaxation; impaired learning and memory, increased risk of psychological disorders, lung damage from smoke
  33. ABSOLUTE THRESHOLD
    The minimum stimulation needed to detect a particular stimulus 50 percent of the time
  34. FREUD'S WISH-FULFILLMENT
    Freud's theory that we dream to satisfy our own wishes. A dream's manifest content is a censored, symbolic version of its latent content which consists of unconscious drives and wishes that would be threatening if expressed directly
  35. INFORMATION PROCESSING
    To file away memories; dreams may help sift, sort and fix the day's experiences in our memory
  36. HYPNOSIS
    Social interaction in which one person suggests to another that certain perceptions, feelings, thoughts, or behaviors wil spontaneously occur
  37. EFFECT OF SLEEP DEPRIVATION
    Difficulty studying, dimenised productivity, tendency to make mistakes, irritability, fatigue, suppresses and weakens immune system, slowed reaction times, weight gain
  38. SLEEP APNEA
    A sleep disorder characterized by temporary cessations of breathing during sleep and consequent momentary rewakenings
  39. NICOTINE
    Stimulant: arousal and relaxation of well being, heart disease, cancer, dimenishes appetite and boosts alertness and mental efficiency, calms anxiety and reduces sensitivity to pain
  40. SELECTIVE ATTENTION
    The focusing of conscious awareness on a particular stimulus, like the coctail effect (notice your name in a crowd)
  41. NIGHT TERRORS
    A sleep disorder characterized by high arousal and an appearancy of being terrified; unlike nightmares, night terrors occur during stage 4, within 2 or 3 hours of falling asleep, and are seldom remembered
  42. METH
    Stimulant; euphoria, alertness, energy, irritability, insomnia, hypertension, seizures
  43. PARALLEL PROCESSING
    The processing of several aspects of a problem simultaneously; the brains natural mode of information processing for many functions including vision. Contrasts with the step-by-step processing of most computers and of conscious problem solving. Brain cell teams process combined information about color, movement, form and depth
  44. DUAL CONSCIOUSNESS
    The principle that information is often simultaneously processed on a separate conscious and unconscious tracks
  45. LSD
    Hallucinogen; varies from euphoria to detachment to panic
  46. PHYSICAL DEPENDENCE
    A physiological need for a drug, marked by unpleasant withdrawal symptoms when the drug is discontinued
  47. TOLERANCE
    The diminishing effect with regular use of the same dose of a drug, requiring the user to take larger and larger doses before experiencing the drug's effect
  48. CAFFINE
    Stimulant; increased alertness and wakefulness, anxiety, restlessness, and insomnia in high doses, uncomfortable withdrawal
  49. ALCOHOL
    Depressant; Initial high followed by relaxatin and disinhibition; can cause depression, memory loss, organ damage, impaired reactions
  50. DEPTH PERCEPTION AND THE VISUAL CLIFF EXPERIMENT
    • Depth perception is our ability to see objects in 3 dimensions, which lets us judge distance.
    • Visual cliff and other research demonstrates that many species perceive the world in three dimensions at, or very soon after birth
  51. UNCONSCIOUS INFORMATION PROCESSING
    Performing well-learned tasks automatically, changing our attitudes and reconstructiong our memories with no awareness of doing so, registering and reacting to a vast number of stimuli we do not consciously perceive
  52. HEROIN
    Depressant; rush of euphoria, relief from pain, depressed physiology, antagonizing withdrawal
  53. ECTASY
    Stimulant and mild hallucinogen; emotional elevation, dis-inhibition; dehydration, overheating, depressed mood, impaired cognitive immune functioning
  54. SLEEP DISORDERS
    Serious disturbances in the normal sleep patter that interfere with daytime functioning and cause subjective distress

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