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Functions of the Musculoskeletal system.
(A&P Review - Obj. #1)
- -supports/weight-bearing (voluntary movemt)
- -protects internal organs
- -RBC production
- -mineral storage (Ca, & P - Phosphorus)
Describe (initial) assessment related to musculoskeletal function.
- Chief complaint
- -limited ROM r/t stiffness crepitus
- -ability to complete ADLs
- -ability to complete self-care
- -medical Dx past & present
Describe (focused physical) assessment related to musculoskeletal system.
- -gait, posture, ROM, xfer ability, balance
- -assistive devices
- -joint size symmetry, muscle atrophy
- -muscle strength (use scale)
6 P's of musculoskeletal assessment.
- -paresthesia (numbness, burning, tingling)
Describe components of CMS assessment.
- -cap refill
- -paresthesia (numbness, tingling, itching)
Describe (diagnostic) assessment related to musculoskeletal system.
- -Arthrogram (joint x-ray w/contrast)
- -Indium Scan/Bone scan (radio-isotope consumption - must flush)
- -Lab tests (C-reactive protein, ESR - Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate)
- -Arthrocentesis (obtaining synovial fluid from a joint)
Define & describe Osteoarthritis (OA)
- -degenerative joint disease
- -insidious (slowly progressive)
- -non-inflammatory (destruction of cartilage)
- -common in hips, knees, & spine
- -unknown cause (genetic predisposition)
Primary/idiopathic OA - Etilogy (cause/risk factors)
Secondary OA - Etiology (causes & risks)
- -mechanical stress
- -prior injury
- -congenital anomalies
- -drugs (e.g. corticosteroids, colchicine)
- -Legg-Calve-Perthes Disease
Osteoarthritis (OA) - Pathology
- -cartilage degradation
- -cartilage softens => loses elasticity
- -yellow & worn on joint surfaces
- -increased synovial fluid
- *boney growths: osteophytes
Osteoarthritis - Clinical Manifestations (s/s)
- -Osteoarthritis (OA) = local
- -gait changes
- -Heberden's or Bouchard's Nodules (fingers)
- *Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) = systemic
Osteoarthritis (OA) Collaborative Care/Medical management
- -manage pain
- -maintain/improve function
- -prevent disability
- -non-pharmacological treatment (heat/cold, rest/activity balance)
- -exercise (joint flexibility)
- -alternative therapies (yoga, Tai Chi, acupuncture, Reiki)
Osteoarthritis Medication/Pharmacological treatments.
- -Non-opioid Analgesics (acetaminophen/Tyenolo)
- -NSAIDS (ibuprofen, Motin, Aleve)
- -Cox-2 inhibitors (Celebrex)
- -Corticosteroids (local/systemic = inj/oral)