Ch 8 Biology

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hchristensen
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204493
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Ch 8 Biology
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2013-03-02 19:01:02
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Questions from Ch8 Biology for Hi-Q
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  1. What is the tendency for traits to be passed from parent to offspring called?
    heredity
  2. What are alternative forms of a character called?
    traits
  3. What are heritable features called?
    character
  4. What is it called when you let each variety of plants self-fertilize for several generations?
    true-breeding
  5. What did Mendel call the first generation of flowers?
    P generation
  6. What did Mendel call the offspring of the P generation?
    F1 generation
  7. What did Mendel call the plants of the F1 generation that self-fertilized?
    F2 generation
  8. What is the term for an allele whose phenotype effects are masked in heterozygotes by the presence of a dominant allele?
    recessive
  9. What is the term for an allele that dictates the appearance of heterozygotes?
    dominant
  10. What is the term for Mendel's factors?
    genes (he called them merkmal)
  11. If the two copies of the factor are the same, what is the individual called?
    homozygous
  12. If the two copies of the factor are different, what is the individual called?
    heterozygous
  13. What are alternative forms of a factor called?
    alleles
  14. What do we call the appearance of an individual?
    phenotype
  15. What is the total set of genes present in the cells of an organism called?
    genotype
  16. The possible results from a cross between a true-breeding, white-flowered plant and a true-breeding, purple-flowered plant can be visualized with what?
    Punnett square
  17. The frequency that these genotypes occur in the offspring is usually expressed by what?
    probability
  18. What is a cross between a heterozygous and a recessive homozygote called? It is a procedure that Mendel used to further test his hypotheses.
    testcross
  19. What is Mendel's first law, that states that only one allele specifying an alternative trait can be carried in a particular gamete, and gametes combine randomly in forming offspring?
    law of segregation
  20. What is an individual heterozygous for two genes called?
    dihybrid
  21. What is Mendel's second law, that states that genes located on different chromosomes are inherited independently of one another?
    law of independent assortment
  22. What is the term for when multiple genes act jointly to influence a character such as height or weight?
    polygenic
  23. What is a gradation in the degree of difference when many individuals are examined called?
    continuous variation
  24. What is the term for when an individual allele has more than one effect on the phenotype?
    pleiotropic
  25. What is the ability of two alleles to produce a heterozygous phenotype that is different from either homozygous phenotype?
    incomplete dominance
  26. What is an interaction between the products of two genes in which one of the genes modifies the phenotypic expression produced by the other called?
    epistasis
  27. What is a ratio that is changed called?
    modified ratio
  28. What is the degree of gene influence called?
    heritability
  29. Sometimes, an organism expresses more than one phenotype. In these cases, what are the alleles called?
    codominant
  30. What are the four different cell surface phenotypes called?
    • ABO blood groups
    • Landsteiner blood groups
  31. Sex is determined by the number of what chromosome?
    X chromosome
  32. What is the large, dissimilar partner that the X chromosome pairs with called?
    Y chromosome
  33. What is a trait determined by a gene on the sex chromosome called?
    sex-linked
  34. What are the 22 pairs of human chromosomes that are similar in size and morphology in both males and females called?
    autosomes
  35. What are the 23rd pair of chromosomes called?
    sex chromosomes
  36. What is the failure of chromosomes to separate correctly during either meiosis I or II called?
    nondisjunction
  37. What is an abnormal number of chromosomes called? Nondisjunction leads to this.
    aneuploidy
  38. What is one copy of an autosome called?
    monosome
  39. What is the term for an extra autosome?
    trisomic
  40. What is the development defect produced by trisomy 21 called?
    Down syndrome
  41. What syndrome includes symptoms of XXY zygote, and sterile male with female characteristics?
    Klinefelter syndrome
  42. What syndrome includes symptoms of XO zygote, sterile female of short stature with a webbed neck?
    Turner syndrome
  43. What are accidental changes in genes called?
    mutations
  44. What are family trees called?
    pedigrees
  45. What is a hereditary condition in which the blood clots slowly or not at all?
    hemophilia
  46. What is a recessive hereditary disorder in which the afflicted individuals have defective molecules of hemoglobin?
    sickle-cell anemia
  47. What is an incurable hereditary disorder in which the brain deteriorates?
    Tay-Sachs disease
  48. What is a hereditary condition caused by a dominant allele that causes the progressive deterioration of brain cells?
    Huntington's disease
  49. What is the process of identifying parents at risk of producing children with genetic defects and of assessing the genetic state of early embryos called?
    genetic counseling
  50. What is a procedure that permits the prenatal diagnosis of many genetic disorders?
    amniocentesis
  51. What procedure uses sound waves to view organs?
    ultrasound
  52. What procedure involves the physician removing cells from the chorion?
    chorionic villus sampling

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