Neuro Exam 2.9

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brau2308
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204497
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Neuro Exam 2.9
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2013-03-06 23:32:13
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neurology neuroscience neuroanatomy
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review of neuro lecture 9 for exam 2
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  1. What does the metencephalon of the rhombencephalon become?
    pons and cerebellum
  2. What is the appearance of the cerebellum?
    laminated, layered appearance
  3. What are the folds of the cerebellum called?
    folia
  4. What does the cerebellum overlie?
    posterior aspect of pons and medulla
  5. Where does the cerebellum sit?
    posterior cranial fossa
  6. What covers and protects the cerebellum?
    tentorium cerebella
  7. What separates the right and left hemispheres of the cerebellum?
    falx cerebelli
  8. What connects the right and left hemispheres of the cerebellum?
    vermis
  9. What connects the cerebellum to the brainstem?
    • superior peduncle
    • middle and inferior peduncles
  10. What does the superior peduncle connect the cerebellum to?
    midbrain
  11. What does the middle peduncle connect the cerebellum to?
    pons
  12. What does the inferior peduncle connect the cerebellum to?
    medulla
  13. What type of structure is the superior peduncle?
    predominately an efferent structure of cerebellum (sends out cerebellar messages)
  14. What type of structures are the middle and inferior peduncles?
    predominately afferent structures (take info into cerebellum)
  15. What are the 3 lobes of the cerebellum?
    • anterior lobe
    • posterior lobe
    • flocculonodular
  16. What are the parts for the anterior lobe of the cerebellum?
    spinocerebellum/paleocerebellum
  17. What does the anterior lobe do?
    • muscle tone maintenance (hypotonia)
    • maintenance of posture
    • gross voluntary movement (gait)
  18. What are the the parts of the posterior lobe?
    • middle lobe
    • pontocerebellum
    • neocerebellum
  19. What does the posterior lobe do?
    coordination of fine voluntary movements
  20. What does damage to the posterior lobe of the cerebellum do?
    ataxia and intentional tremor
  21. What is the largest lobe of the cerebellum?
    posterior lobe
  22. What is the name for the flocculonodular lobe?
    archicerebellum
  23. What does the flocculonodular lobe do?
    maintenance of equilibrium
  24. Where is the flocculonodular lobe?
    most inferior portion of the cerebellum
  25. Do the fibers of the cerebellum project directly from the cerebellum to the spinal cord?
    no, therefore, if cerebellum is damaged, the person won't be paralyzed
  26. What type of matter makes the cerebellar cortex?
    gray matter
  27. How many types of cells are in the cerebellar cortex?
    5
  28. What are the layers of the cerebellar cortex (superficial to deep)?
    • molecular
    • perkinje
    • granular
  29. What type of matter makes the cerebellar cortex?
    white matter
  30. Are the deep cerebellar nuclei bilateral or unilateral?
    bilateral
  31. What are the deep cerebellar nuclei of the cerebellar cortex (medial to lateral)?
    • fastigal
    • globose
    • emboliform
    • dentate nuclei
  32. Which of the deep cerebellar nuclei of the cerebellar cortex deals with equilibrium?
    fastigal
  33. In the cerebellar cortex, where does information travel?
    from cortex to nuclei
  34. Afferent cerebellar input is primarily via:
    middle and inferior peduncles
  35. What does the cerebellum need to carry out functions?
    • constant proprioceptive info
    • equilibrium states
    • muscle tone in body
    • skeletal muscle activity
  36. What is proprioceptive info?
    position sense from mm spindles
  37. Where is equilibrium state processed?
    semi-circular canals
  38. Where does skeletal muscle activity of the cerebellum come from?
    corticospinal and corticobulbar
  39. Corticospinal:
    • cortex to spinal cord
    • tell LMN what to do
  40. Where do the functions of the cerebellum occur?
    medial and inferior peduncles
  41. What do the deep cerebellar nuclei do?
    make decisions -send info- from various sources
  42. What are the efferent cerebellar peduncles?
    • superior cerebellar peduncle
    • fastigial efferent connections
  43. Are the superior cerebellar peduncles afferent or efferent?
    efferent
  44. Where does most of the information from cerebellar nuclei pass to leave cerebellum?
    superior cerebellar peduncles
  45. Where does most of the efferent info from the superior cerebellar peduncle go to?
    red nucleus in midbrain
  46. Where is the information in the superior cerebellar peduncle come from?
    • 3 of the 4 deep cerebellar nuclei
    • dententate
    • globose
    • emboliform
  47. What is the red nucleus involved with?
    motor tone, influences skeletal mm
  48. Is the fastigial efferent connection part of superior peduncle?
    no, exits by itself
  49. What uses the fastigial efferent connections?
    fastigial nuclei
  50. What is the fastigial efferent connection?
    group of neurons located below superior cerebellar peduncle
  51. What do fastigial efferent neurons project to?
    vestibular nuclei in pons
  52. What is the vestibular nuclei in the pons involved with?
    equilibrium issues
  53. All information enters cerebellum through:
    two peduncles
  54. What makes decisions in the cerebellum?
    cortex and deep cerebellar nuclei
  55. What sends out info from the cerebellum?
    peduncles
  56. Afferent cerebellar input primarily via middle and inferior peduncles --> cerebellar cortex --> deep cerebellar nuclei --> efferent cerebellar output
    • 1. superior cerebellar peduncle
    • 2. fastigial efferent projections
  57. What does the myelencephalon of the rhombencephalon become?
    medulla oblongata
  58. Where is the medulla oblongata?
    most caudal portion of brain stem
  59. What is the medulla oblongata?
    rostral continuation of spinal cord
  60. What is the point that distinguishes the medulla from the spinal cord?
    anything above magnum foramen is medulla
  61. The medulla forms part of the floor of:
    4th ventricle
  62. The medulla is divided into columns by:
    anterior and posterior median fissures
  63. What is the obex?
    • on dorsal aspect of medulla
    • V-shaped structure formed where 4th ventricle narrows into central canal of spinal cord
  64. What is the anterolateral sulcus?
    • marks lateral limits of the pyramides
    • seen as 4 of the CNs associated w/ medulla
  65. What CNs are associated with the medulla?
    • Glossopharyngeal (IX)
    • Vagus (X)
    • Spinal Accessory (XI)
    • Hypoglossal (XII)
  66. What are the contents of the medulla?
    • cranial nerve nuclei
    • nucleus gracilis and nucleus cuneatus
    • ascending sensory tracts
    • descending motor tracts
  67. Name the cranial nerve nuclei of the medulla oblongata:
    • spinal nucleus of V
    • inferior salivatory nucleus
    • nucleus ambiguus
    • dorsal motor nucleus
    • hypoglossal motor nucleus
    • solitary nucleus
  68. Is the spinal nucleus of V motor or sensory?
    sensory
  69. Which CN is CN V?
    trigeminal
  70. The spinal nucleus of V descends from which structure?
    pons
  71. What structure does the nucleus of V go into?
    medulla
  72. The spinal nucleus of V is shared by how many CN?
    4
  73. The 4 CN of the spinal nucleus of V all have what in common?
    general sensation capabilities
  74. What CN share the spinal nucleus of V?
    • trigeminal
    • facial
    • glossopharyngeal
    • vagus
  75. Is the inferior salivatory nucleus motor or sensory?
    motor
  76. Which NS is the inferior salivatory nucleus involved with?
    parasympathetic system
  77. Which CN share the inferior salivatory nucleus?
    • facial
    • glossopharyngeal
  78. What is contained within the inferior salivatory nucleus?
    preganglionic parasympathetic nuerons involved w/ innervating salivary and mucus glands
  79. Is the nucleus ambiguus motor or sensory?
    motor
  80. What does the nucleus ambiguus contain?
    cell bodies of LMN involved w/ innervation of pharynx, larynx, and soft palate
  81. Which CN share the nucleus ambiguus?
    • glossopharyngeal
    • vagus
    • spinal accessory
  82. Is the dorsal motor nucleus motor or sensory?
    motor
  83. Which CN does the dorsal motor nucleus belong to?
    vagus
  84. What does the dorsal motor nucleus contain?
    cell bodies of preganglionic parasympathetic neurons involved with innervating visceral structures of thorax, abdomen, and pelvis (lungs, GI, gallbladder, etc)
  85. What does visceral structures mean?
    those with smooth muscle
  86. Which CNs have:
    parasympathetic function
    involve motor nuclei
    preganglionic parasympathetic neurons?
    CN 3, 7, 9, 10
  87. Is the hypoglossal motor nucleus motor or sensory?
    motor
  88. Which CN is the hypoglossal motor nucleus associated with?
    hypoglossal (XII)
  89. What does the hypoglossal motor nucleus contain?
    cell bodies of LMN involved w/ innervating intrinsic and extrinsic mm of tongue
  90. Is the solitary nucleus motor or sensory?
    sensory
  91. Which CNs is the solitary nucleus involved w/?
    CN VII, IX, and X
  92. What sensory function is the solitary nucleus involved w/?
    taste
  93. Where are the nucleus gracilis and nucleus cuneatus?
    • pass through pons and tegmentum as medial lemniscus
    • inferior medulla
  94. Where are 2nd order sensory neurons located?
    tegmentum of medulla
  95. Are the nucleus gracilis and nucleus cuneatus bilateral or unilateral?
    bilateral
  96. What are contained in the inferior medulla?
    cell bodies of 2nd order sensory neurons which form medial lemnisci
  97. What function are the nucleus gracilis and nucleus cuneatus a part of?
    conscious proprioception pathway (dorsal column)
  98. Where do all ascending sensory tracts originate?
    spinal cord and medulla
  99. What do the ascending sensory tracts from the spinal cord and medulla pass through?
    tegmentum of medulla
  100. What are the portions of the ascending sensory tracts (discussed in relation to tegmentum of pons and midbrain)?
    • spinal lemniscus
    • medial lemniscus
    • trigeminal lemniscus
    • medial longitundinal fasciculus
    • anterior and posterior spinocerebellar tracts
  101. What do the anterior and posterior spinocerebellar tracts do?
    bring unconscious proprioception to cerebellum
  102. Where do the anterior and posterior spinocerebellar tracts run?
    from spinal cord to cerebellum
  103. What info do the anterior and posterior spinocerebellar tracts conduct?
    proprioception (body position sense)
  104. Where do descending motor tracts go?
    spinal cord and medulla
  105. What do descending motor tracts pass through?
    medulla
  106. Where may the descending motor tracts stop?
    at midbrain, pons, or medulla
  107. What are the major descending motor tracts?
    • corticospinal
    • corticobulbar
    • rubrospinal
    • reticulospinal
    • corticospinal decussation
    • decussation of medial lemniscus
    • medullary reticular formation
    • inferior cerebellar peduncle
    • inferior olivary nuclear complex
  108. Where does the corticospinal tract begin?
    precentral gyrus of cortex w/ UMN
  109. What does the corticospinal tract pass through?
    medulla
  110. Where does the corticospinal tract go?
    ventral horns of spinal cord
  111. Corticobulbar:
    • UMN descend and enter brain stem and stop at some point at a motor nucleus
    • mm of head, neck, and face
  112. Where does the rubrospinal tract run?
    from red nuclei into ventral horns of spinal cord
  113. What is the rubrospinal tract involved with?
    skeletal muscle activity
  114. Is the reticulospinal tract motor or sensory?
    both motor and sensory function
  115. Is the reticulospinal tract mainly motor or sensory?
    motor
  116. Where do the neurons of the reticulospinal tract come from?
    reticular formation of brainstem
  117. Where is the reticular formation?
    midbrain, pons, and medulla
  118. Where does the reticulospinal tract descend to?
    spinal cord
  119. Where does the R/L corticospinal tract decussation occur at?
    pyramids in medulla (ventral surface)
  120. Decussation of medial lemniscus:
    where 2nd order sensory neurons originating from nuclei cuneatus and nuclei gracilis decussate (cross over) and form medial lemniscus (ascending)
  121. What is the medullary reticular formation?
    small diffuse nuclei full length of brainstem
  122. What is the medullary reticular formation a part of?
    overall reticular formation associated w/ tegmentum of brain stem
  123. Inferior Cerebellar peduncle:
    • structure which attaches cerebellum to the brainstem
    • contains afferent and efferent fibers
  124. What is the olivary nuclear complex?
    large nuclear complex involved w/ cerebellar coordination activities
  125. What type of fibers does the inferior olivary nuclear complex contain?
    both afferent and efferent fibers
  126. What is the major function of the inferior olivary nuclear complex (motor or sensory)?
    motor
  127. Specific area w/in the medullar are involved with what?
    regulation of major physiological activities
  128. What are the major physiological activities that specific areas w/in the medulla are involved with?
    • respiratory center
    • cardiovascular center
    • vomiting
  129. respiratory center:
    instigates phrenic nn to control diaphragm
  130. cardiovascular center:
    • controls heart rate and blood pressure
    • -receives info from multiple system including endocrine system
  131. Vomiting:
    reverse peristalisis

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