psych220 CH 4 MIDTERM

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psych220 CH 4 MIDTERM
2013-03-07 19:21:28

Psych220 midterm Chapter 4 notecards
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  1. Adaptive theory of sleep
    sleep is a pattern of evolution
  2. Restorative theory of sleep
    necessary for the phsycial health of the body
  3. REM sleep
    • Rapid Eye Movement
    • Typically experience dreaming
    • high level of brain activity
    • Body non-active inhibitive
  4. Non-REM sleep
    • Deeper restful sleep
    • Body moves
    • 4 stages
  5. 4 Stages of Non-REM sleep
    • 1 - light sleep
    • 2 - spindles
    • 3/4 - delta waves pronounced
  6. Non-REM sleep: Stage One
    • light sleep
    • hypnagogic images - vivid visual events, hallucinations
    • hypnic jerk - knees, legs, or whole body jerks
  7. Non-REM sleep: Stage Two
    • spindles
    • sleep spindles (brief bursts of activity [1 or 2 seconds])
    • Temperature, heart rate decrease
    • Aware of sleep if awakened
  8. Non-REM sleep: Stage Three & Four
    • Delta waves pronounced
    • Deep sleep - when 50%+ of waves are delta waves
    • growth hormones released from pituitary**
    • hard to awaken
  9. Sleep Disorder: Nightmares
    • Bad dreams occuring during REM sleep
    • Vividly remembered
  10. Sleep Disorder: REM behavior disorder
    • rare disorder in which the mechanism that blocks movement of voluntary muscles fails, allowing a person to move, get up and act out nightmares
    • usually aggressive, aggetated or loud
  11. Sleep Disorder: Sleepwalking
    • NREM disorder
    • person has eyes open, moves around interacts with their physical environment and may do complex activities
    • non-violent
  12. Sleep Disorder: Night Terrors
    • Primarily occurs in young children.
    • Characterized by an incomplete arousal from during stage 4 nREM sleep. If, the individual is awakened during a night terror, he/she is usually confused and does not remember details of the event.
  13. Sleep Disorder: Insomnia
    • nREM disorder
    • Defined as not getting enough sleep.
    • Difficulty falling asleep
    • Difficulty staying asleep
    • Bad quality of sleep
    • A combination of the above
  14. Sleep Disorder: Sleep Apnea
    • nREM sleep disorder
    • Occurs when the airway gets blocked during sleep as your throat muscles relax, preventing you from breathing. The body wakes you up to get your throat muscles working to clear the airway so you can once again breathe.
  15. Sleep Disorder: Narcolepsy
    • nREM sleep disorder
    • characterized by sudden and uncontrollable episodes of deep sleep
    • is attributable to an inability to suppress REM sleep during waking
  16. Dream Theory: Activation-synthesis hypothesis
    dreaming is just another type of thinking while asleep
  17. Dream Theory: Activation-information-model (AIM)
    • information that is accessed during waking hours can have an influence on dreams
    • bits and pieces of the days experiences
  18. Dream Theory (film): REM dreaming
    • amygdala is highly active
    • experiences negative emotions
    • depressed people are found to fall asleep in REM and stay asleep longer in REM
  19. Dream Theory (film): nREM dreaming
    • experiences positive emotions
    • most people fall asleep in nREM sleep
  20. 5 Types of Drugs
    • Stimulants
    • Depressants
    • Narcotics
    • Hallucinogenic
    • Other
  21. Drug Type: Stimulant
    • Drug that increases the functioning of the nervous system
    • eg. Caffeine - coffee, tea [high blood pressure], chocolate
  22. Drug Type: Depressant
    • Drugs that decrease the functioning of the nervous system
    • eg. Alcohol - beer, wine, spirits [health problem, depression]
  23. Drug Type: Narcotic
    • Opium related drug that supresses the sensation of pain by binding to and stimulating the nervous system's natual receptor sites for endorphins
    • eg. Morphine [addiction, death]
  24. Drug Type: Hallucinogen
    • Drug that alters perception or distorts consciousness
    • eg. LSD [schizophrenia]
  25. Drug Type: Other
    eg. Sugar [diabetes, obesity]