chapter 54

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chapter 54
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2013-03-02 21:50:11
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chapter 54
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  1. anemia
    a condition marked by deficincy of red blood cells (RBCs)
  2. artifacts
    structures or features not normally present but visible as a result of an exteranl agent or action a microscopic specimen after fixation or in a radiographic image
  3. centrifuge
    an apparatus that spins about a central axis to separate contained materials of different specific gravities or separate colloidal particles suspended in a liquid
  4. enzymes
    complex proteins produced by cells that acts as catalysts in specific biochemical reactions
  5. polycythemia vera
    a condition marked by an abnormally large number of red blood cells (RBCs) in the circulatory system
  6. type and cross-match
    tests performed to assess the compatibility of blood to be transfused
  7. urea
    the major nitrogenous end-product of protein metabolism and the chief nitrogenous component of urine
  8. the average body holds ___ to ___ pints of blood
    10 to 12
  9. the heart circulates the blood through the circulatory system more than ___ times every day
    1000
  10. _____ miles of passageways most of which are narrower than a human hair carry blood throughout the body
    70,000 miles of passageways
  11. blood is contained in a closed system of vessels the largest is the _____ and the smallest are the ______
    • largest aorta
    • smallest capillaries
  12. body replaces 8 million ___ ___ ___ cells
    old red blood cells
  13. CBC / complete blood count is the
    laboratory procedure most frequently ordered for blood specimens.

    • 7 tests are done in a complete blood count
    • RBC count
    • WBC count
    • hemoglobin
    • hematocrit
    • differential wbc count
    • platelet numbers
    • red cell indices
  14. whole blood is composed of formed elements suspended in a clear , yellow , liquid portion called
    plasma
  15. plasmas makes up approximately ___ % of blood by volume the remaining ___ % consist of formed elements
    plasma 55%

    formed elements 45%

    formed elements are: erthrocytes (RBCs) leukocytes (WBC) and thrombocytes (platelets)
  16. red blood cells are formed in the
    red bone marrow of the ribs , sternum , pelvis skull , and in the ends of long bones in adults
  17. erythrocytes transports
    oxygen form the lungs to the body cells and carry carbon dioxide away from cells back to the lungs to be exhaled
  18. the main constituent is the red pigment hemoglobin which is compsoed of
    iron and protein

    hemoglobin carries oxygen and some carbon dioxide throughout the body
  19. Leukocytes WBCs main function is to
    protect the body against infection and disease.
  20. granular leukocytes are
    • neutrophil
    • eosinophil
    • basophil

    these are polymorphonuclear leukocytes which are characterized by their heavily granulated cytoplasm and segmented nuclei
  21. agranular leukocytes are
    • lymphocytes
    • monocytes

    both have clear cytoplasm and a solid necleus
  22. phagocytic leukocytes are
    granular they engulf invading bacteria and viruses
  23. leukocytes that produce antibodies are
    agranular classified as T cells or B cells
  24. cytotoxic Killer T cell
    kill foreign virus-infected and tumor cells

    Killer T cell produce proteins called perforans
  25. Helper T cells
    are the numerous

    they stimulate the activity of other T cells
  26. suppressor T cells
    inhibits the activity of other T cells
  27. memory T cells
    have a long life span respond quickly to presentation of the same antigen at a later date

    vacination
  28. natural killer T cells
    kill virus-infected cells and tumor cells without previous sensitization
  29. B cells are formed in
    bone marrow and then migrate to other lymph organs where they multiply and reside
  30. when B cells are stimulated
    B cells differentiate into plasma cells that produce specific antibodies to an antigen
  31. activation of the complement system leads to the lysis of microorganisms or their phagocytosis by
    neutrophils
  32. antibodies are protein molecules that attach to
    antigens

    • antigen processing
    • lymphocyte
    • antibody production
  33. thrombocytes: platelet fragments which are not
    true cells but fragments of megakaryocytes they are the smallest formed elements of blood

    stop bleeding
  34. megakaryocyte are
    large cells in the bone marrow
  35. hemohilia is
    • a bleeding disorder a mutation in one of the clotting factor gene
    •  
    • it is hereditary

    affects males of all races and ethnic groups

    on the X chromosome inherited from the mother
  36. Plasma is
    90% water
  37. when plasma proteins and other components are used up during the clotting process the remaining liquid is called
    serum
  38. for most hematology test an adequate blood sample can be obtained from
    capillaries by finger puncture

    if larger sample is required blood can be obtained from a vein by venipuncture
  39. For a CBC complete blood count
    venous blood is collected in a tube containing an anticoagulant the prevents clotting.

    EDTA- ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid is the anticoagulant of choice for hematology testing. It is important to prevent blood from being hemolyzed during collection for hematology testing
  40. Hematocrit
    is a measurement of the percentage of packed RBC in a volume of blood

    hematocrit test for anemia or the presence of bleeding in a patient

    • low RBC is anemia
    • NOT CLIA-waived test this test is done by physicians
  41. after centifugation RBC are
    RBCs are at the bottom of the tube

    WBCs and platelets are in the center

    plasma is on top
  42. hematocrit reference values in adult men and women
    women 36-45

    men 42-52

    high values may be caused by dehydration or a condtion called polycythemia vera
  43. hemoglobin measure the
    oxygen-carrying capacity of blood

    YES CLIA waived

    use a hemoCue machine plastic cuvettes , sodium nitrite , sodium deoxycholate lyses the erythrocytes . form methemoglobin
  44. hemoglobin and hematocrit test often are performed together and are referred to
    H&H
  45. red blood cell function is to
    transport oxygent to tissues
  46. white blood cell count is performed to help
    the physician determine whether an infection is present or to aid in the diagnosis of leukemia

    • normal WBC count varies with age. 
    •                                                           
    • average adult 4,000 to 11,000 cells/mm
  47. Hemoglobin Reference values
    female 12-16

    male 15-17
  48. an increase in the number of normal WBCs is a condition called _____

    an decrease in the number of normal WBCs is a condition called _____
    leukocytosis (increase)

    leukopenia (decrease)
  49. red cells indices
    provide information about red blood cells disorders anemia and cause of anemia

    • MCV: mean corpuscular volume(range)
    • MCH: mean corpuscular hemoglobin (weight)
    • MCHC: concentration or content (cell size)
    • RDW: red cell distribution width (cell size)
  50. Differential cell count diff
    analyze and quantitate the types of WBCs found in a sample of blood
  51. blood smear
    30 to 35 degrees angle

    dry with thick end(heel) down

    dont blow and cause artifacts

    write name on frosted end with pencil or marker

    staining: polychromatic

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