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multi cellular, green cell wall
multicellular/ not green because it does not photosynthesis, it’s a decomposer (long and rectangular cells)
4 groups of Eukaryotic cells
is prokaryotic cell
includes all bacteria cells
Inside cell membrane
- Phospholipids – majority
ribosomes will assemble
lipids are made
er stands for
where proteins get packaged andmodified
break down and recycle
Vacuoles (plants only)
breaks down and recyclesand regulates water in plants
captures light and makes sugar(photosynthesis)
makes cell energy (ATP) from food
Differences in the four types of macromolecules, what each is made of,
the chemical properties of each and the role in the cell, examples of specific types of
- lipids-hydrocarbons,fatty acids
- nucleic acids- nucleotide
- carbohydrates- sacharides
2 amino acids
protons, electrons , neutrons
vacuole is filled with water expands and creates pressure
pressure decreases because of lack of water
water moving into the cell
water leaves a cell
unique to plant cells
- cell wall – protect cell ( made of cellulose)
- vacuole- remove waste, regulate water chloroplast- photosynthesis
2 types of cells
- prokaryotic- monera
- eukariotes Protista, fungi, plant,animal
- Osmosis movement of water·
- Facilitated through facilitated protein pore· Defusion movement of solutes
- Active require energy or ATP
Nucleotide consist of:
- nitrogenous base
eukaryotic cell .
#6 golgi apparatus
#3 rough ER
#7 Cell membrane
#3 5 rough ER
#8 smooth ER(lypid synthesis)
#4/ 10/12 lysosomes
#6 golgi apparatus
#2 nucleus DNA stored
#1 nucleolus to assemble rhybosomes
most common elemets in living cells:
it is attracted to different substances
is the attraction of water to itself
are substances that help to maintain a constant pH
= the chemical potential hydrogen
form when two atoms share electronsto complete the outer complete orbit. Covalent bonds can be polar or non-polar
Polar covalent bonds
when sharing in unequal (oxygen and two hydrogen atoms form water, the sharing is unequal).This creates a polar compound with unique properties. One end is slightly negative the other slightly positive.
Non-Polar covalent bond
forms when sharing is equal, themolecule has no charge (i.e. hydrocarbons are components of fats)
Prokaryotic Cells and
- These are cells of the Kingdom
- Monera which contain all bacteria cells.
- Size = Most bacteria
- are from 2 – 8 micrometers in size.
- The DNA is free-floating,
- with no nuclear envelope. Also known as ‘nucleoid’.
- No organelles are present.
- Ribosomes are
- present. They make proteins.
- Plasma membrane encloses the cytoplasm.
- Cell wall surrounds the plasma membrane.
- Some bacteria have a protective, mucillagenous sheath
- around the cell-wall, known as ‘capsule’.
- Some bacteria have pili (singular = pilus) to
- attatch to surfaces.
- Some bacteria have long projections – flagella –
- help in locomotion.
Differences Between Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic
- • Prokayotic Cells include all bacteria (Kingdom Monera), are simple, have no nucleus (falsenucleus = nucleoid), Organelles are absent / without membranes. The Flagellar structureis different.
- • Eukaryotic Cells include all living organisms besides bacteria (Protista, Fungi, PlantandAnimal), are complex, have a true nucleus, have organells and the Flagellar structure is different from that in prokaryotes.
7 Classes of Proteins:
7 Classes of Proteins:
- There are 7
- classes of Proteins, viz.:
- 1) Structural
- proteins (eg. spider silk, hair, tendons, etc..)
- 2) Contractile
- proteins (eg. Muscles (actin and myosin))
- 3) Storage
- proteins (eg. Ovalbumin)
- 4) Defensive
- proteins (eg. Antibodies)
- 5) Transport
- proteins (eg. Hemoglobin)
- 6) Signal
- proteins (eg. hormones)
- 7) Enzyme
- proteins (eg. digestive enzymes)
Cholesterol, Estrogen, Progesterone and Testosterone
Cholesterol , phospholipids, proteins
- are also called triglycerides because they are composed of three
- fatty acids linked with one glycerol.
Definition of Chitin, Cellulose, Glycogen, Starch
- Starch is a helically coiled unbranched polymer made up of
- many units of Glucose. It is a plant
- storage sugar.
- Glycogen is a branched polymer made up of many units of
- Glucose. It is an animal storage sugar.
- Cellulose forms structure, it is a fibrous polymer made up of
- interconnected chains of Glucose units. It is a major component of cell-walls
- and of wood.
- Chitin similar to cellulose, it forms structure in insects
- and in fungi and is made of interconnected chains of glucose units. Is the
- major component of exoskeleton of insects and the cell walls of fungi.
is the basicunit of life.