BIO 003 TEST 1

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marco5
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204523
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BIO 003 TEST 1
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2013-03-03 21:42:27
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bio 003
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test 1
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  1. Plant-
    multi cellular, green cell wall
  2. Fungai-
    multicellular/ not green because it does not photosynthesis, it’s a decomposer (long and rectangular cells)
  3. 4 groups of Eukaryotic cells
    ·     Protista

    ·     Fungai

    ·     Plants

    ·     Animalia
  4. No nucleolus
    is prokaryotic cell
  5. Kingdom Monera
    includes all bacteria cells
  6. Inside cell membrane
    • Cholesterol
    • Proteins
    • Phospholipids – majority
  7. nucleus
    stores DNA
  8. nucleolus
    ribosomes will assemble
  9. rough er
    protein synthesis
  10. smooth er
    lipids are made
  11. er stands for
    endoplasm reticulum
  12. Golgi apparatus
    where proteins get packaged andmodified
  13. Lysosomes (animals)
    break down and recycle
  14. Vacuoles (plants only)
    breaks down and recyclesand regulates water in plants
  15. Chloroplasts-
    captures light and makes sugar(photosynthesis)
  16. Mitochondrion-
    makes cell energy (ATP) from food
  17. Differences in the four types of macromolecules, what each is made of,
    the chemical properties of each and the role in the cell, examples of specific types of
    macromolecules
    • proteins-aminoacid
    • lipids-hydrocarbons,fatty acids
    • nucleic acids- nucleotide
    • carbohydrates- sacharides
  18. 2 amino acids
    – dipepetide
  19. atoms:
    protons, electrons , neutrons
  20. Turgor-
    vacuole is filled with water expands and creates pressure
  21. Plasmolysis-
    pressure decreases because of lack of water
  22. Isotonic
    no movement
  23. Hypotonic-
    water moving into the cell
  24. Hypertonic-
    water leaves a cell
  25. unique to plant cells
    • cell wall – protect cell ( made of cellulose)
    • vacuole- remove waste, regulate water chloroplast- photosynthesis
  26. 2 types of cells
    • prokaryotic- monera
    • eukariotes Protista, fungi, plant,animal
  27. Transport
    • Passive·   
    •   Osmosis movement of water·   
    •   Facilitated through facilitated protein pore·       Defusion movement of solutes
    • Active require energy or ATP
  28. Nucleotide consist of:
    • Sugar 
    • phosphate  
    • nitrogenous base
  29. 3.5 BYA,
    prokaryotic
  30. 2.5 BYA
    eukaryotic cell .
  31. no nucleus
    Prokaryotic Cells
  32. #6 golgi apparatus

    #3 rough ER

    #7 Cell membrane

    #9 mitochondrian

    #3 5 rough ER

    #8 smooth ER(lypid synthesis)

    #4/ 10/12 lysosomes

    #6 golgi apparatus

    #2 nucleus DNA stored

    #1 nucleolus to assemble rhybosomes

    #11 cytoplasm

    #13 centriole
  33. most common elemets in living cells:
    1hydrogen

    2nitrogen

    3carbon

    4oxygen
  34. adhesive:
    it is attracted to different substances
  35. Cohesion
    is the attraction of water to itself
  36. Buffer
    are substances that help to maintain a constant pH
  37. pH
    = the chemical potential hydrogen
  38. Covalent Bonds
    form when two atoms share electronsto complete the outer complete orbit. Covalent bonds can be polar or non-polar
  39. Polar covalent bonds
    when sharing in unequal (oxygen and two hydrogen atoms form water, the sharing is          unequal).This creates a polar compound with unique properties. One end is slightly negative the other          slightly positive.
  40. Non-Polar covalent bond
    forms when sharing is equal, themolecule has no charge (i.e. hydrocarbons are components of fats)
  41. Prokaryotic Cells and
    Their Characteristics
    • •               
    • These are cells of the Kingdom
    • Monera which contain all bacteria cells.

    • •               
    • Size = Most bacteria
    • are from 2 – 8 micrometers in size.
    • •               
    • The DNA is free-floating,
    • with no nuclear envelope. Also known as ‘nucleoid’.

    • •               
    • No organelles are present.

    • •               
    • Ribosomes are
    • present. They make proteins.

    • •               
    • Plasma membrane encloses the cytoplasm.

    • •               
    • Cell wall surrounds the plasma membrane.

    • •               
    • Some bacteria have a protective, mucillagenous sheath
    • around the cell-wall, known as ‘capsule’.

    • •               
    • Some bacteria have pili (singular = pilus) to
    • attatch to surfaces.

    • •               
    • Some bacteria have long projections – flagella –
    • help in locomotion.
  42. Differences Between Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic
    Cells
    • •               Prokayotic Cells include all bacteria (Kingdom Monera), are simple, have no nucleus (falsenucleus = nucleoid), Organelles are absent / without membranes. The Flagellar structureis different.
    •  •               Eukaryotic Cells include all living organisms besides bacteria (Protista, Fungi, PlantandAnimal),  are complex, have a true nucleus, have organells and the Flagellar structure is different from that in prokaryotes.
  43. 7 Classes of Proteins:
    7 Classes of Proteins:

    • •               
    • There are 7
    • classes of Proteins, viz.:

    • •               
    • 1) Structural
    • proteins (eg. spider silk, hair, tendons, etc..)

    • •               
    • 2) Contractile
    • proteins (eg. Muscles (actin and myosin))

    • •               
    • 3) Storage
    • proteins (eg. Ovalbumin)

    • •               
    • 4) Defensive
    • proteins (eg. Antibodies)

    • •               
    • 5) Transport
    • proteins (eg. Hemoglobin)

    • •               
    • 6) Signal
    • proteins (eg. hormones)

    • •               
    • 7) Enzyme
    • proteins (eg. digestive enzymes)
  44. Cholesterol, Estrogen, Progesterone and Testosterone
    lipid
  45. Lipid bilayer
    Cholesterol , phospholipids, proteins
  46. triglyceride
    • Fats
    • are also called triglycerides because they are composed of three
    • fatty acids linked with one glycerol.
  47. Definition of Chitin, Cellulose, Glycogen, Starch
    • POLYSACHARIDE
    • •               
    • Starch is a helically coiled unbranched polymer made up of
    • many units of Glucose.  It is a plant
    • storage sugar.

    • •               
    • Glycogen is a branched polymer made up of many units of
    • Glucose. It is an animal storage sugar.

    • •               
    • Cellulose forms structure, it is a fibrous polymer made up of
    • interconnected chains of Glucose units. It is a major component of cell-walls
    • and of wood. 

    • •               
    • Chitin similar to cellulose, it forms structure in insects
    • and in fungi and is made of interconnected chains of glucose units. Is the
    • major component of exoskeleton of insects and the cell walls of fungi.
  48. The Cell
    is the basicunit of life.

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