A&P Muscles and Muscle Tissue

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Jessa
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204526
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A&P Muscles and Muscle Tissue
Updated:
2013-03-10 21:29:18
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Anatomy Physiology Muscles
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Lecture Muscle and Muscle Tissue
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  1. What are the 3 types of muscle tissues?
    • Skeletal
    • Cardiac 
    • Smooth
  2. What muscle tissue has the longest fibers?
    Skeletal
  3. What muscle tissue:
    *attaches to skeleton by tendons
    *Large, elongated, striated fibers
    *Parallel,cylindrical fibers w/ peripheral nuclei 
    *40% of the body's mass
    *Voluntary
    *protects viscera 
    *over all body mobility
    Skeletal Muscle
  4. What are the pros and cons of skeletal muscle?
    • PROS:
    • contract rapidly
    • exert tremendous power
    • remarkably adaptable

    • CONS:
    • tires easily
    • must rest after short periods of activity
  5. What muscle tissue:
    *is located only in the heart/ bulk of heart walls
    *muscle cells are striated w/intercalated disc
    *involuntary control
    *contracts at a fairly steady rate; but neural controls allow the heart to speed up for brief periods
    Cardiac Muscle
  6. What muscle tissue:
    *located in the walls of hollow organs
    *forces fluids and other substances through internal body channels
    *contractions are slow and sustained 
    *dilates and constricts pupils/forms arrector pili muscle
    Smooth Muscle
  7. What are the differences in the 3 muscle tissues?
    • Skeletal:
    • elongated fibers, striated, involuntary

    • Cardiac:
    • striated, intercalated disc, involuntary

    • Smooth:
    • elongated cells, NO striations, involuntary
  8. What are the special characteristics of muscle tissue?
    • Excitable/Irritable
    • Extensible 
    • Contractible 
    • Elastic
  9. What special characteristic allows the muscle to receive and respond to stimulus?
    Excitability/Irritability
  10. What special characteristic allows the muscle to shorten forcibly when adequately stimulated; this is unique to muscles
    Contractility
  11. What special characteristic gives muscle the ability to stretch ? (shorten when contracting, can stretch when relaxed)
    Extensibility
  12. What special characteristic  gives the muscle fiber the ability to recoil and resume its resting length after stretching?
    Elasticity
  13. Muscular Functions:
    • Produce movement 
    • Maintain Posture
    • Stabilized Joints
    • Generate Heat
  14. What muscle tissue is most responsible for generating heat?
    Skeletal Muscle
  15. Define Contraction (twitch):
    • working muscles generate tension
    • drawing together;shortening or shrinkage 
  16. Gross Anatomy of Skeletal Muscles:
    *Skeletal Muscle Tissue: skeletal muscle fibers predominate, blood vessels, nerve fibers & CT 

    *one nerve,one artery and one or more veins serve each muscle

    • *supplied with a nerve ending that controls activity 
    • *has rich blood supply 
    • *fibers also give off large amounts of metabolic waste that must be removed through veins if contraction is to remain efficient 
    • **CAN NOT CONTRACT WITHOUT NERVE STIMULATION
  17. What are the 3 CT sheaths that protect the skeletal muscle?
    • Epimysium
    • Perimysium
    • Endomysium
  18. What protective CT layer encircles the entire skeletal muscle?
    Epimysium (outside the muscle)=overcoat
  19. Define fascicles:
    grouped muscle fibers within skeletal muscles
  20. what protective CT layer surrounds a fascicle of 10-100 muscle fibers?
    Perimysium (around the muscle;fascicle)
  21. What protective CT layer surrounds individual muscle fibers and is areolar CT?
    Endomysium (within the muscle)
  22. Define Fascia:
    Broad sheaths of fibrous CT;supports and protects muscle tissue
  23. What type of fascia separates skin and muscle,contains adipose that insulates to prevent heat loss and protects from physical trauma and contains nerves, blood and lymph vessels that supply muscles.
    Superficial Fascia
  24. What type of fascia fills spaces between muscles? DRCT
    Deep Fascia
  25. sarcolemma
    • plasma membrane of muscle cells
    • contains perpendicular T tubules
  26. sarcoplasm
    • muscle cell cytoplasm
    • contains glycosomes and myoglobin
    • Also contains Actin and Myosin
  27. Sheet -like CT attachments of muscle to muscle
    Aponeurosis
  28. rope-like CT attachments of muscle to bone
    Tendon
  29. Origin
    non-movable attachment of muscle
  30. insertion
    movable attachment of muscle
  31. What are muscles derived from?
    • Mesoderm
    • primary germ layer that forms the skeleton and muscles of the body
  32. Immature mesoderm cells in which all muscle fibers develop is know as what?
    myoblast
  33. Muscle Fiber:
    • Diameter ranges from 10-100 um
    • (10x larger than avg. cell)
    • Length can range  up to 30cm (12in/1ft)
  34. granules of stored glycogen that provide glucose during muscle cell activity
    glycosomes
  35. a red pigment that stores oxygen, similar to hemoglobin.
    Myoglobin
  36. What are the intracellular tubules that regulate contraction?
    • Sarcoplasmic reticulum
    • T-Tubules (transverse) 
  37. Sarcoplasmic Reticulum (SR):
    • Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) 
    • Fluid filled membranous sacs encircle each myofibril
    • communicate at H zone 
    • stores and release ionic calcium C+ during contractions
  38. What element provides the final go signal for contraction?
    Calcium
  39. What is involved in producing the energy used during contraction?
    Mitochondria & glycogen
  40. T-Tubules (transverse)
    • w/in the sarcolemma
    • encircles each sarcomere
    • conducts impulses to the deepest regions of the muscle fibers and every sarcomere
    • impulses signal release of calcium
    • ensures every myofibril and muscle fiber contracts at the same time
  41. What proteins are involved with contraction?
    Actin and Myosin
  42. Myofibrils:
    • Long, cylinderical bundles of proteins that run parallel to the length of the cell
    • Contain sacromeres (composed of actin and myosin)
    • 80% cellular volume
  43. What myofilament is thin and contains binding-sites for the club-like heads of myosin?
    Actin
  44. What myofiliament is a thick motor filament that contains club-like heads that attach to binding sites of actin? 
    Myosin
  45. What are the 3 myofilaments?
    • Actin 
    • Myosin
    • Elastic
  46. Regulatory proteins which block the binding site of actin?
    • Tropnin & Tropomyosin Complex (TTC)
    • proteins w/in the thin filament
  47. Sarcomere:
    • Smallest functional contractile units of a muscle located on a myofibril
    • Distance or region between 2 Z discs 
    • A band flanked by 1/2 I band @ each end
    • align end to end
    • Contains myofilaments 
  48. Within the sacromere the myofilaments overlap creating alternating dark and light bands know as what?
    • Striations
    • A band (dark portions)
    •    contains both actin and myosin
    •    H zone (myosin only)-lighter region in A bands midsection
    •    M line (thick filaments linked by accessory proteins)-middle of sacromere

    • I bands (light portions)
    • Contains actin only
    •    Z discs- darker midline interuption of I band
  49. Interaction between the thin actin fibers and the thick myosin fibers create what?
    muscular contraction
  50. The area of sarcolemma where a motor neuron contacts a muscle
    fiber and releases neurotransmitter.

     
    Motor end plate
  51. What space separates the axon terminal and muscle fiber, ACh is released into this place before attaching to ACh receptors
    Synaptic Cleft/Synapse 
  52. The neurotransmitter for skeletal muscle is what?
    acetylcholine
  53. What enzyme located in the synaptic cleft breaks down ACh to its building blocks (acetic acid and choline)
    acetylcholinesterase 
  54. What does a Motor Unit consist of?
    1 motor neuron and all the muscles it innervates (fascicle of skeletal muscles)
  55. Force of muscle contractions
             4 MAJOR FACTORS
    • Number of Muscle Fibers Stimulated
    • Size of Muscle Fibers
    • Frequency of Stimulation
    • Degree of Muscle Stretch
  56. Path ways for regenerating ATP
    • 1)Direct phosphorylation
    • -Coupled reaction of creatine phosphate and ADP
    • 2)Anaerobic Pathway
    • -Glycolysis and lactic acid formatio
    • 3)Aerobic Pathway
    • Aerobic cellular respiration
  57. Point at which muscle metabolism converts to anaerobic glycolysis
    anaerobic threshold
  58. length of time a muscle can continue to contract using aerobic pathways
    aerobic endurance
  59. energy rich molecule found in muscle allows for more energy for contraction
    creatine phosphate
  60. builds size by resistance, does not require oxygen, produces 2 ATP, duration of energy is 30-60 seconds.
    anaerobic
  61. builds endurance,requires oxygen, energy duration is hours, produces 32 ATP
    aerobic 
  62. what are the 3 types of muscle fibers?
    • slow oxidative (red) aerobic 
    • Fast glycolutic (white) anaerobic
    • fast oxidative (pink) hybrid
  63. a slight contracted state in relaxed muscles due to reflex signals, helps stabilize joints and maintain posture but does not produce movement
    muscle tone
  64. Variations in the degree of muscle contraction by changing either
    the strength or frequency of the stimulus:
     
    Graded Muscle Response
  65. response of a muscle to a single brief stimulis
    Twitch
  66. temporary loss of excitability occurs in muscles and nerves
    refractory period
  67. involuntary muscle contraction
    spasm
  68. prolonged spasm
    cramp
  69. Treatment of injured muscles: RICE
    • Rest
    • Ice
    • Compression
    • Elevation

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